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CABI Book Chapter

Responsible marine aquaculture.

Book cover for Responsible marine aquaculture.

Description

This book contains 17 chapters. Topics covered are: management of marine aquaculture: the sustainability challenge; marine mammals and aquaculture: conflicts and potential resolutions; recreational fishing and aquaculture: throwing a line into the pond; aquaculture: opportunity of threat to traditional capture fishermen; advances in marine stock enhancement: shifting emphasis to theory and account...

Metrics

Chapter 2 (Page no: 45)

Marine mammals and aquaculture: conflicts and potential resolutions.

Two main types of marine-based aquaculture come into potential conflict with marine mammals (and, in some areas, marine turtles and seabirds): (i) extensive raising of shellfish, such as oysters, mussels and shrimp; and (ii) intensive raising of finfish, such as salmon, sea bass and sea bream. The first takes up space in near-shore waters but does not generally require nets or cages that can entangle or otherwise hurt air-breathing vertebrates. It also does not require supplementary feeding, and therefore is not generally a major attractant for marine mammals and others. However, shellfish aquaculture puts extra nitrogen into the ecosystem, and can change local ecology where tidal and other flushing is minimal. It takes up extensive space in inlets, fjords and the like, and may compete for limited habitat access with foraging, resting, socializing and nurturant mammals. The intensive but generally more localized farming of finfish often requires supplementary feeding, and both the stock in holding pens and the feed serve as powerful attractants especially to pinnipeds (but toothed cetaceans, river and sea otters, marine turtles, and seabirds are often involved as well). As such, major problems are caused to the industry by destruction of gear and the target aquaculture species; and to the marine animals by shooting and other techniques, such as large-scale use of Acoustic Deterrent Devices (ADDs) and Acoustic Harassment Devices (AHDs). No technique has proved highly successful, and the widespread use of ADDs and AHDs is particularly problematic and largely untested. We recommend that owing to potential for entanglement, chemical and sound pollution, habitat loss or gross alteration, traffic, and changes in species interactions, all proposed development of marine aquaculture in nature should be subjected to initial evaluations and - as needed - scientific research relative to interactions between the food being raised by humans and the predators that attempt to take advantage of this. The loss of habitat to marine mammals by both shellfish and fish aquaculture facilities needs to be investigated on a case-by-case basis.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 21) Management of marine aquaculture: the sustainability challenge. Author(s): DeVoe, M. R. Hodges, C. E.
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 61) Recreational fishing and aquaculture: throwing a line into the pond. Author(s): Harvey, W. D. McKinney, L. D.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 71) Aquaculture: opportunity or threat to traditional capture fishermen? Author(s): Barnaby, R. Adams, S.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 79) Advances in marine stock enhancement: shifting emphasis to theory and accountability. Author(s): Leber, K. M.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 91) Aquatic polyculture and balanced ecosystem management: new paradigms for seafood production. Author(s): McVey, J. P. Stickney, R. R. Yarish, C. Chopin, T.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 105) The role of marine aquaculture facilities as habitats and ecosystems. Author(s): Costa-Pierce, B. A. Bridger, C. J.
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 145) Mangroves and coastal aquaculture. Author(s): Boyd, C. E.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 159) Environmental effects associated with marine netpen waste with emphasis on salmon farming in the pacific northwest. Author(s): Brooks, K. M. Mahnken, C. Nash, C.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 205) Issues associated with non-indigenous species in marine aquaculture. Author(s): Stickney, R. R.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 221) Genetic changes in marine aquaculture species and the potential for impacts on natural populations. Author(s): Hershberger, W. K.
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 233) What role does genetics play in responsible aquaculture? Author(s): Lester, L. J.
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 263) Understanding the interaction of extractive and fed aquaculture using ecosystem modelling. Author(s): Rawson, M. V., Jr. Chen, C. S. Ji, R. B. Zhu MingYuan Wang DaoRu Wang Lu Yarish, c. Sullivan, J. B. Chopin, T. Carmona, R.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 297) Shrimp farm effluents. Author(s): Treece, G. D.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 311) Fish meal: historical uses, production trends and future outlook for sustainable supplies. Author(s): Hardy, R. W. Tacon, A. G. J.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 327) The use of wild-caught juveniles in coastal aquaculture and its application to coral reef fishes. Author(s): Hair, C. Bell, J. Doherty, P.
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 355) Contending with criticism: sensible responses in an age of advocacy. Author(s): Tiersch, T. R. Hargreaves, J. A.

Chapter details

  • Author Affiliation
  • Department of Marine Biology, Texas A&M University at Galveston, 4700 Avenue U, Building 303, Galveston, TX 77551, USA.
  • Year of Publication
  • 2002
  • ISBN
  • 9780851996042
  • Record Number
  • 20023099967