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CABI Book Chapter

Responsible marine aquaculture.

Book cover for Responsible marine aquaculture.

Description

This book contains 17 chapters. Topics covered are: management of marine aquaculture: the sustainability challenge; marine mammals and aquaculture: conflicts and potential resolutions; recreational fishing and aquaculture: throwing a line into the pond; aquaculture: opportunity of threat to traditional capture fishermen; advances in marine stock enhancement: shifting emphasis to theory and account...

Metrics

Chapter 16 (Page no: 327)

The use of wild-caught juveniles in coastal aquaculture and its application to coral reef fishes.

Worldwide, there are many substantial coastal aquaculture and stock enhancement operations based on collection of wild juveniles. These include: growout of shrimp (Penaeidae), milkfish (Chanos chanos), eels (Anguilla spp.), yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata), southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii), edible oysters (Ostreidae) and mussels (Mytilidae); stock enhancement of scallops (Pectinidae); and the culture of pearls in farmed blacklip pearl oysters (Pinctada margaritifera). The growout of wild puerulus larvae of spiny lobsters (Palinuridae) is also developing rapidly. The advantages of using wild-caught juveniles for aquaculture are: (i) low costs of obtaining animals for stocking as compared with hatchery production; (ii) availability of individuals fit for growout in the sea; (iii) no risks of 'genetic pollution' from deliberate or accidental releases; (iv) reduced likelihood of transferring diseases; and (v) a broader range of economic benefits, including opportunities for coastal dwellers in developing countries to sell stock to larger enterprises. In addition, responsible capture and culture of wild juveniles can improve overall fisheries productivity for target species by circumventing the high rates of natural mortality associated with settlement of postlarvae from the plankton. Careful management of this process is needed, however, to ensure that replenishment of the stock, and fisheries targeting adults, are not affected. Where large numbers of postlarvae are taken, or where aquaculture is based on larger juveniles, these goals can be met by returning a proportion of the cultured juveniles to the wild, or through the transfer of fishing effort from adults to juveniles. The disadvantages of using wild juveniles for aquaculture are: (i) the number of animals available for growout can be limited and variable; (ii) there is no scope for increased productivity through selective breeding; and (iii) potential effects on the ecosystem stemming from mortality of bycatch and removal of prey from the food chain. On balance, the advantages outweigh the disadvantages and new applications for the use of wild-caught juveniles are under investigation. In particular, there has been interest in using aquaculture to supply the trade in ornamental and live food fish from coral reefs to overcome problems resulting from overfishing of adults and the use of destructive fishing techniques. However, it is technically difficult and expensive to propagate postlarvae of many coral reef fishes so cost-effective hatchery production of juveniles for aquaculture is likely to develop only for a minority of target species. As an alternative, the feasibility of harvesting pre-settlement coral reef fishes from the plankton in numbers that do not affect the replenishment of natural populations, and rearing them for a short period before sale to the ornamental trade or as juveniles for growout for the live fish market, is being assessed. Two sampling techniques, light traps and crest nets, have proved suitable for the capture of live pre-settlement fishes and substantial progress has now been made in applying these methods to the development of artisanal fisheries for ornamental species. Although the capture and culture of postlarvae is unlikely to meet the demand for all tropical marine fish required by the ornamental trade, it has the potential to create important niche markets, e.g. for ecolabelled specimens, and provide sustainable economic benefits from coral reef resources for coastal villagers.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 21) Management of marine aquaculture: the sustainability challenge. Author(s): DeVoe, M. R. Hodges, C. E.
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 45) Marine mammals and aquaculture: conflicts and potential resolutions. Author(s): W├╝rsig, B. Gailey, G. A.
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 61) Recreational fishing and aquaculture: throwing a line into the pond. Author(s): Harvey, W. D. McKinney, L. D.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 71) Aquaculture: opportunity or threat to traditional capture fishermen? Author(s): Barnaby, R. Adams, S.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 79) Advances in marine stock enhancement: shifting emphasis to theory and accountability. Author(s): Leber, K. M.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 91) Aquatic polyculture and balanced ecosystem management: new paradigms for seafood production. Author(s): McVey, J. P. Stickney, R. R. Yarish, C. Chopin, T.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 105) The role of marine aquaculture facilities as habitats and ecosystems. Author(s): Costa-Pierce, B. A. Bridger, C. J.
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 145) Mangroves and coastal aquaculture. Author(s): Boyd, C. E.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 159) Environmental effects associated with marine netpen waste with emphasis on salmon farming in the pacific northwest. Author(s): Brooks, K. M. Mahnken, C. Nash, C.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 205) Issues associated with non-indigenous species in marine aquaculture. Author(s): Stickney, R. R.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 221) Genetic changes in marine aquaculture species and the potential for impacts on natural populations. Author(s): Hershberger, W. K.
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 233) What role does genetics play in responsible aquaculture? Author(s): Lester, L. J.
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 263) Understanding the interaction of extractive and fed aquaculture using ecosystem modelling. Author(s): Rawson, M. V., Jr. Chen, C. S. Ji, R. B. Zhu MingYuan Wang DaoRu Wang Lu Yarish, c. Sullivan, J. B. Chopin, T. Carmona, R.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 297) Shrimp farm effluents. Author(s): Treece, G. D.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 311) Fish meal: historical uses, production trends and future outlook for sustainable supplies. Author(s): Hardy, R. W. Tacon, A. G. J.
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 355) Contending with criticism: sensible responses in an age of advocacy. Author(s): Tiersch, T. R. Hargreaves, J. A.

Chapter details

  • Author Affiliation
  • ICLARM, The World Fish Center, PO Box 500, GPO 10670, Penang, Malaysia.
  • Year of Publication
  • 2002
  • ISBN
  • 9780851996042
  • Record Number
  • 20023099978