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CABI Book Chapter

Economic and social issues in agricultural biotechnology.

Book cover for Economic and social issues in agricultural biotechnology.

Description

This book presents 21 selected revised and edited papers from the 4th and 5th meetings of the International Consortium on Agricultural Biotechnology Research, held in Italy in 2000 and 2001. Topics covered include: intellectual property rights and technological exchange; public-private issues; genetic technologies and methods; developing country experiences; and international models. The book will...

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Chapter 2 (Page no: 17)

Conflicts in intellectual property rights of genetic resources: implications for agricultural biotechnology.

Governments of developing countries are presently confronted with various, and directly conflicting, international obligations that regulate the use of genetic resources. They must recognize intellectual property protection of plant material and farmers' rights, and, they must take into account rules for access to plant genetic resources and related technology, and for sharing benefits of the use of genetic resources. All these obligations may have an impact on plant-breeding activities and on the diffusion of new plant varieties and biotechnological innovations. This impact, however, may differ by region and by country, because there are large differences among countries in their plant-breeding capability, the share of farmers that use modern varieties, and the value of plant genetic resources available. These differences have caused an international controversy on the interpretation and operationalization of the international obligations. This chapter discusses some effects of the plant variety protection (PVP) system. It is argued that the currently favoured International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV)-PVP system may have negative effects for the majority of small farmers in developing countries, and that these negative effects, and the absence of positive effects, have led to the demand for farmers' rights. It is suggested that developing countries should be allowed to introduce modified PVP systems. These systems should: (i) allow farmers to save and swap seed from protected varieties; and (ii) encourage breeding approaches that result in less uniform varieties which can be adapted by farming communities. Three policy options are discussed that could combine these requirements: PVP and accession to UPOV; PVP but early exhaustion of the right; and the establishment of a Breeders' Fund.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 1) From the Green Revolution to the Gene Revolution. Author(s): Evenson, R. E.
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 31) Sui generis protection of plant varieties in Asian agriculture: a regional regime in the making? Author(s): Egelyng, H.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 43) Intellectual property aspects of traditional agricultural knowledge. Author(s): Blakeney, M.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 61) Farmers' rights and intellectual property rights - reconciling conflicting concepts. Author(s): Alker, D. Heidhues, F.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 93) Universities, technology transfer and industrial R&D. Author(s): Graff, G. Heiman, A. Zilberman, D. Castillo, F. Parker, D.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 119) Mergers and intellectual property in agricultural biotechnology. Author(s): Marco, A. C. Rausser, G. C.
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 137) Cost of conserving genetic resources at ex situ genebanks: an example of the ICARDA genebank. Author(s): Koo, B. Pardey, P. G. Valkoun, J. Wright, B. D.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 159) Impact of terminator technologies in developing countries: a framework for economic analysis. Author(s): Srinivasan, C. S. Thirtle, C.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 181) The impact of genetic use restriction technologies on developing countries: a forecast. Author(s): Goeschl, T. Swanson, T.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 193) Managing proprietary technology in agricultural research. Author(s): Komen, J. Cohen, J. I. Falconi, C. Salazar, S.
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 203) Is marker-assisted selection cost-effective compared with conventional plant breeding methods? The case of quality protein Maize. Author(s): Dreher, K. Morris, M. Khairallah, M. Ribaut, J. M. Shivaji Pandey Ganesan Srinivasan
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 237) Can biotechnology reach the poor? The adequacy of information and seed delivery. Author(s): Tripp, R.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 251) Value of engineered virus resistance in crop plants and technology cooperation with developing countries. Author(s): Flasinski, S. Aquino, V. M. Hautea, R. A. Kaniewski, W. K. Lam, N. D. Ong, C. A. Pillai, V. Romyanon, K.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 269) Institutions and institutional capacity for biotechnology - a case study of India. Author(s): Rhoe, V. Shantharam, S. Babu, S.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 287) Social and economic impact ex ante evaluation of Embrapa's biotechnology research products. Author(s): Avila, A. F. D. Quirino, T. R. Contini, E. Rech Filho, E. L.
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 309) Intellectual property protection and the international marketing of agricultural biotechnology: firm and host country impacts. Author(s): Goldsmith, P. Ramos, G. Steiger, C.
Chapter: 18 (Page no: 325) Efficiency effects of Bt cotton adoption by smallholders in Makhathini Flats, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Author(s): Ismaƫl, Y. Beyers, L. Thirtle, C. Piesse, J.
Chapter: 19 (Page no: 351) Income and employment effects of transgenic herbicide-resistant cassava in Colombia: a preliminary simulation. Author(s): Pachico, D. Escobar, Z. Rivas, L. Gottret, V. Perez, S.
Chapter: 20 (Page no: 359) Estimating the economic effects of GMOs: the importance of policy choices and preferences. Author(s): Anderson, K. Nielsen, C. P. Robinson, S.
Chapter: 21 (Page no: 393) Smallholders, transgenic varieties, and production efficiency: the case of cotton farmers in China. Author(s): Huang JiKun Hu RuiFa Rozelle, S. Qiao, F. B. Pray, C. E.

Chapter details

  • Author Affiliation
  • Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
  • Year of Publication
  • 2002
  • ISBN
  • 9780851996189
  • Record Number
  • 20023100357