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CABI Book Chapter

Valuing crop biodiversity: on-farm genetic resources and economic change.

Book cover for Valuing crop biodiversity: on-farm genetic resources and economic change.

Description

In agricultural systems, diversity of crops and varieties is essential to combat the risks farmers face from pests, diseases and variations in climate. Crop biodiversity also underpins the range of dietary needs and services that consumers demand. There is growing concern, however, about declining diversity of crop genetic resources on farms, associated with social and economic change. This book c...

Metrics

Chapter 13 (Page no: 211)

Community seed systems and the biodiversity of millet crops in southern India.

This chapter expands the approach of Chapter 11 [Determinants of cereal diversity in villages of northern Ethiopia, by B. Gebremedhin, M. Smale and J. Pender, pp. 177-191], adding seed system characteristics to the set of factors that influence variation in crop biodiversity levels measured at the geographical scale of the community. In the subsistence-oriented, semiarid production systems of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, India, the environment is marginal for crop growth and often there is no substitute for millet crops. Across communities, farmers grow 13 different combinations of pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum], sorghum [Sorghum bicolor], finger millet [Eleusine coracana], little millet [Panicum sumatrense] and foxtail millet [Setaria italica] varieties, but individual farmers grow an average of only two to three millet varieties per season. The notion of the seed system includes all channels through which farmers acquire genetic materials, outside or in interaction with the commercial seed industry. Data are compiled through household surveys and interviews with traders and dealers in village and district markets. Based on the concept of the seed lot, several characteristics of local seed markets are defined and measured by millet crop, including seed transfer rates for farmer-to-farmer transactions and seed replacement ratios. Most seed transactions appear to be based on money. Seed supply channels differ by improvement status of the genetic material. Econometric results indicate the significance of the seed replacement ratios and seed volumes traded in determining the levels of crop biodiversity managed by communities, in addition to the household, farm and other market-related factors identified by previous studies. These are interpreted as indicators of market strength.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 1) Concepts, metrics and plan of the book. Author(s): Smale, M.
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 17) Crop valuation and farmer response to change: implications for in situ conservation of maize in Mexico. Author(s): Dyer, G. A.
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 32) Farmer demand for agricultural biodiversity in Hungary's transition economy: a choice experiment approach. Author(s): Birol, E. Kontoleon, A. Smale, M.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 48) An attribute-based index of coffee diversity and implications for on-farm conservation in Ethiopia. Author(s): Wale, E. Mburu, J.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 63) Missing markets, migration and crop biodiversity in the milpa system of Mexico: a household-farm model. Author(s): Dusen, M. E. van
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 78) Explaining the diversity of cereal crops and varieties grown on household farms in the highlands of northern Ethiopia. Author(s): Benin, S. Smale, M. Pender, J.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 97) Demand for cultivar attributes and the biodiversity of bananas on farms in Uganda. Author(s): Edmeades, S. Smale, M. Karamura, D.
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 119) Explaining farmer demand for agricultural biodiversity in Hungary’s transition economy. Author(s): Birol, E. Smale, M. Gyovai, Á.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 146) Rural development and the diversity of potatoes on farms in Cajamarca, Peru. Author(s): Winters, P. Hintze, L. H. Ortiz, O.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 162) Managing rice biodiversity on farms: the choices of farmers and breeders in Nepal. Author(s): Gauchan, D. Smale, M. Maxted, N. Cole, M.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 177) Determinants of cereal diversity in villages of northern Ethiopia. Author(s): Gebremedhin, B. Smale, M. Pender, J.
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 192) Social institutions and seed systems: the diversity of fruits and nuts in Uzbekistan. Author(s): Dusen, M. E. van Dennis, E. Ilyasov, J. Lee, M. Treshkin, S. Smale, M.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 233) Seed supply and the on-farm demand for diversity: a case study from eastern Ethiopia. Author(s): Lipper, L. Cavatassi, R. Winters, P.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 251) Institutions, stakeholders and the management of crop biodiversity on Hungarian family farms. Author(s): Bela, G. Balázs, B. Pataki, G.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 270) Cooperatives, wheat diversity and the crop productivity in southern Italy. Author(s): Falco, S. di Perrings, C.
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 280) Scope, limitations and future directions. Author(s): Smale, M. Lipper, L. Koundouri, P.
Chapter: 18 (Page no: 296) An annotated bibliography of applied economics studies about crop biodiversity in situ (on farms). Author(s): Zambrano, P. Smale, M.

Chapter details

  • Author Affiliation
  • Department of Applied Economics, College of Agricultural, Food, and Environmental Sciences, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA.
  • Year of Publication
  • 2005
  • ISBN
  • 9780851990835
  • Record Number
  • 20063061426