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CABI Book Chapter

Modelling nutrient utilization in farm animals.

Book cover for Modelling nutrient utilization in farm animals.

Description

This book presents edited and revised versions of papers presented at the Fifth International Workshop on Modelling Nutrient Utilization in Farm Animals, held at the University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa, 25-28 October 1999. There are 31 chapters and 6 sections entitled ruminal metabolism, absorption and metabolism, growth and development, ruminant production in various situations, nutr...

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Chapter 7 (Page no: 87)

Modelling production and portal appearance of volatile fatty acids in dairy cows.

Values of stoichiometric coefficients were estimated to describe the production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) from fermented substrate in the rumen of lactating cows. Coefficient estimates were derived by regression of in vivo data of rumen digestion to a stoichiometric model with non-linear regression techniques. The model explained only part of the simulated range of VFA molar proportions. The theoretical potential of the statistical procedure was investigated by simulation studies. These studies revealed that, although the model explained only a small part of the simulated range of VFA molar proportions, coefficient estimates were fitted accurately when the ideal model is used. Simulation results closely corresponded to those obtained with regression of the in vivo data. An evaluation of the in vivo coefficient estimates with independent in vivo data showed again similar results and seemed to confirm the predictive potential of the coefficient estimates. Additionally, a model was developed which describes VFA metabolism by stomach epithelia. Inputs and outputs of the model are amounts of VFA produced in the rumen and VFA released to portal blood. The current model describes the absorption and the activation of VFA by CoAsynthetases as the first step in VFA metabolism. Activation of VFA was described by competitive inhibition between individual VFA. Parameters were derived from in vitro studies of CoA-synthetase activities in tissue samples of ovine or bovine rumen epithelium. The model is a first attempt to describe the interaction between production, absorption and metabolism of VFA, and it assists in relating VFA molar proportions or production rates in the rumen to appearance rates or concentrations of VFA in portal blood.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 11) The role of thermodynamics in controlling rumen metabolism. Author(s): Kohn, R. A. Boston, R. C.
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 25) Modelling lipid metabolism in the rumen. Author(s): Dijkstra, J. Gerrits, W. J. J. Bannink, A. France, J.
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 37) Towards a more accurate representation of fermentation in mathematical models of the rumen. Author(s): Nagorcka, B. N. Gordon, G. L. R. Dynes, R. A.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 49) Simple allometric models to predict rumen feed passage rate in domestic ruminants. Author(s): Cannas, A. Soest, P. J. van
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 63) Ruminal metabolism of buffersoluble proteins, peptides and amino acids in vitro. Author(s): Udén, P.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 73) Models to interpret degradation profiles obtained from in vitro and in situ incubation of ruminant feeds. Author(s): López, S. France, J. Dijkstra, J. Dhanoa, M. S.
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 103) Modelling energy expenditure in pigs. Author(s): Milgen, J. van Noblet, J.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 115) Aspects of modelling kidney dynamics. Author(s): Robson, B. Vlieg, M.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 127) Evaluation of a representation of the limiting amino acid theory for milk protein synthesis. Author(s): Hanigan, M. D. France, J. Crompton, L. A. Bequette, B. J.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 145) Multiple-entry urea kinetic model: effects of incomplete data collection. Author(s): Zuur, G. Russell, K. Lobley, G. E.
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 163) Evaluation of a growth model of preruminant calves and modifications to simulate shortterm responses to changes in protein intake. Author(s): Gerrits, W. J. J. Togt, P. L. van der Dijkstra, J. France, J.
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 175) Simulation of the development of adipose tissue in beef cattle. Author(s): Sainz, R. D. Hasting, E.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 183) A simple nutrient-based production model for the growing pig. Author(s): Boisen, S.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 197) Second-generation dynamic cattle growth and composition models. Author(s): Oltjen, J. W. Pleasants, A. B. Soboleva, T. K. Oddy, V. H.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 211) Modelling interactions between cow milk yield and growth of its suckling calf. Author(s): Blanc, F. Agabriel, J. Sabatier, P.
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 227) A mechanistic dynamic model of beef cattle growth. Author(s): Hoch, T. Agabriel, J.
Chapter: 18 (Page no: 241) Modelling nutrient utilization in growing cattle subjected to short or long periods of moderate to severe undernutrition. Author(s): Witten, G. Q. Richardson, F. D.
Chapter: 19 (Page no: 253) An integrated cattle and crop production model to develop whole-farm nutrient management plans. Author(s): Tylutki, T. P. Fox, D. G.
Chapter: 20 (Page no: 263) Modelling nutrient utilization by livestock grazing semiarid rangeland. Author(s): Richardson, F. D. Hahn, B. D. Schoeman, S. J.
Chapter: 21 (Page no: 281) Using the cornell net carbohydrate and protein system model to evaluate the effects of variation in maize silage quality on a dairy farm. Author(s): Tylutki, T. P. Fox, D. G. McMahon, M. McMahon, P.
Chapter: 22 (Page no: 289) Challenge and improvement of a model of post-absorptive metabolism in dairy cattle. Author(s): McNamara, J. P. Phillips, G. J.
Chapter: 23 (Page no: 303) A rodent model of protein turnover to determine protein synthesis, amino acid channelling and recycling rates in tissues. Author(s): Johnson, H. A. Baldwin, R. L. Calvert, C. C.
Chapter: 24 (Page no: 317) Modelling relationships between homoeorhetic and homoeostatic control of metabolism: application to growing pigs. Author(s): Sauvant, D. Lovatto, P. A.
Chapter: 25 (Page no: 329) Model for the interpretation of energy metabolism in farm animals. Author(s): Chudy, A.
Chapter: 26 (Page no: 347) Linear models of nitrogen utilization in dairy cows. Author(s): Kebreab, E. Allison, R. Mansbridge, R. Beever, D. E. France, J.
Chapter: 27 (Page no: 353) Isotope dilution models for partitioning amino acid uptake by the liver, mammary gland and hindlimb tissues of ruminants. Author(s): Crompton, L. A. France, J. Bequette, B. J. Maas, J. A. Hanigan, M. D. Lomax, M. A. Dijkstra, J.
Chapter: 28 (Page no: 361) The conversion of a scientific model describing dairy cow nutrition and production to an industry tool: the CPM dairy project. Author(s): Boston, R. C. Fox, D. G. Sniffen, C. Janczewski, E. Munson, R. Chalupa, W.
Chapter: 29 (Page no: 379) The utilization of prediction models to optimize farm animal production systems: the case of a growing pig model. Author(s): Bailleul, P. J. dit Bernier, J. F. Milgen, J. van Sauvant, D. Pomar, C.
Chapter: 30 (Page no: 393) A pig model for feed evaluation. Author(s): Danfær, A.

Chapter details

  • Author Affiliation
  • Institute for Animal Science and Health (ID-Lelystad), ID TNO Animal Nutrition, PO Box 65, 8200 AB Lelystad, Netherlands.
  • Year of Publication
  • 2000
  • ISBN
  • 9780851994499
  • Record Number
  • 20083014689