Cookies on CAB eBooks

Like most websites we use cookies. This is to ensure that we give you the best experience possible.


Continuing to use  means you agree to our use of cookies. If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use.

CAB eBooks

Ebooks on agriculture and the applied life sciences from CAB International

CABI Book Chapter

Biological control programmes in Canada, 1981-2000.

Book cover for Biological control programmes in Canada, 1981-2000.


This book summarizes the biological control programmes in Canada since 1981. The book includes three chapters on the relationships of invasive species, pesticides and taxonomy to biological control, and contains sections on insects and mites (55 chapters, including crop pests, forest pests, public health pests and livestock pests), weeds (25 chapters), and pathogens (19 chapters). Some emphasis is...


Chapter 10 (Page no: 49)

Bradysia spp., fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaridae).

This chapter focuses on fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.) attacking bedding plants, ornamentals, greenhouse vegetables, tree seedlings and flower crops in Canada, and provides an overview of the biological control agents, predatory mites (Hypoaspis spp.), predatory insects (Atheta coriaria), bacteria (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis) and nematodes (Steinernema spp.) that have been used to date for their management, and the evaluation of effectiveness of these biological control agents. Future research prospects are recommended.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 1) Invasive species and biological control. Author(s): Parker, D. J. Gill, B. D.
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 4) Pesticides and biological control. Author(s): Floate, K. D. Bérubé, J. Boiteau, G. Dosdall, L. M. Frankenhuyzen, K. van Gillespie, D. R. Moyer, J. Philip, H. G. Shamoun, S.
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 14) Taxonomy and biological control. Author(s): Huber, J. T. Darbyshire, S. Bissett, J. Foottit, R. G.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 22) Acantholyda erythrocephala (L.), pine false webworm (Hymenoptera: Pamphiliidae). Author(s): Lyons, D. B. Kenis, M. Bourchier, R. S.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 28) Acleris gloverana (Walshingham), western blackheaded budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Author(s): Otvos, I. S. Conder, N. Heppner, D. G.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 32) Aculops lycopersici (Massee), tomato russet mite (Acari: Eriophyidae). Author(s): Shipp, J. L. Gillespie, D. R. Ferguson, G. M.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 33) Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze), alfalfa plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae). Author(s): Soroka, J. J. Carl, K.
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 37) Aedes, Culiseta and Culex spp., mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Author(s): Galloway, T. D. Goettel, M. S. Boisvert, M. Boisvert, J.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 44) Aphis gossypii Glover, melon/cotton aphid, Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach), foxglove aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), potato aphid, and Myzus persicae (Sulzer), green peach aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae). Author(s): Gillespie, D. R. Shipp, J. L. Raworth, D. A. Foottit, R. G.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 52) Ceutorhynchus obstrictus (Marsham), cabbage seedpod weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Author(s): Kuhlmann, U. Dosdall, L. M. Mason, P. G.
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 58) Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens), eastern spruce budworm (Tortricidae). Author(s): Smith, S. M. Frankenhuyzen, K. van Nealis, V. G. Bourchier, R. S.
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 69) Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman, western spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Author(s): Otvos, I. S. Conder, N. Frankenhuyzen, K. van
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 75) Choristoneura pinus pinus Freeman, jack pine budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Author(s): Frankenhuyzen, K. van
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 78) Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), obliquebanded leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Author(s): Li, S. Y. Fitzpatrick, S. M. Hueppelsheuser, T. Cossentine, J. E. Vincent, C.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 84) Chrysops, Hybomitra and Tabanus spp., horse and deer flies (Diptera: Tabanidae). Author(s): Iranpour, M. Galloway, T. D.
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 87) Croesia curvalana (Kearfott), blueberry leaftier (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Author(s): Dixon, P. L. Carl, K.
Chapter: 18 (Page no: 90) Cydia pomonella (L.), codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Author(s): Cossentine, J. Vincent, C.
Chapter: 19 (Page no: 94) Cydia strobilella (L.), spruce seed moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Author(s): Brockerhoff, E. G. Kenis, M. Turgeon, J. J.
Chapter: 20 (Page no: 99) Delia radicum (L.), cabbage maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae). Author(s): Soroka, J. J. Kuhlmann, U. Floate, K. D. Whistlecraft, J. Holliday, N. J. Boivin, G.
Chapter: 21 (Page no: 104) Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Author(s): Safranyik, L. Shore, T. L. Moeck, H. A. Whitney, H. S.
Chapter: 22 (Page no: 110) Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov), Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae). Author(s): Olfert, O. O. Doane, J. F. Carl, K. Erlandson, M. A. Goettel, M. S.
Chapter: 23 (Page no: 115) Echinothrips americanus (Morgan), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), western flower thrips, and Thrips tabaci Lindeman, onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Author(s): Shipp, J. L. Gillespie, D. R. Fry, K. M. Ferguson, G. M.
Chapter: 24 (Page no: 120) Eriosoma americanum (Riley), woolly elm aphid (Homoptera: Pemphigidae). Author(s): Fry, K. M.
Chapter: 25 (Page no: 123) Fenusa pusilla (Lepeletier), birch leafminer, and Profenusa thomsoni (Konow), ambermarked birch leafminer (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae). Author(s): Langor, D. W. Digweed, S. C. Spence, J. R.
Chapter: 26 (Page no: 127) Forficula auricularia L., European earwig (Dermaptera: Forficulidae). Author(s): Kuhlmann, U. Sarazin, M. J. O'Hara, J. E.
Chapter: 27 (Page no: 132) Haematobia irritans (L.), horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae). Author(s): Lysyk, T. J. Floate, K. D.
Chapter: 28 (Page no: 135) Hoplocampa testudinea (Klug), European apple sawfly (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae). Author(s): Vincent, C. Babendreier, D. Kuhlmann, U.
Chapter: 29 (Page no: 139) Keiferia lycopersicella (Walsingham), tomato pinworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Author(s): Shipp, J. L. Ferguson, G. M. Hunt, D. W. A.
Chapter: 30 (Page no: 141) Lambdina fiscellaria fiscellaria (Guenée), hemlock looper (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Author(s): Frankenhuyzen, K. van West, R. J. Kenis, M.
Chapter: 31 (Page no: 145) Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Author(s): Cloutier, C. Boiteau, G. Goettel, M. S.
Chapter: 32 (Page no: 152) Lygus spp., plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae). Author(s): Broadbent, A. B. Mason, P. G. Lachance, S. Whistlecraft, J. W. Soroka, J. J. Kuhlmann, U.
Chapter: 33 (Page no: 159) Lymantria dispar (L.), gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Author(s): Nealis, V. G. Carter, N. Kenis, M. Quednau, F. W. Frankenhuyzen, K. van
Chapter: 34 (Page no: 169) Mamestra configurata Walker, bertha armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Author(s): Mason, P. G. Turnock, W. J. Erlandson, M. A. Kuhlmann, U. Braun, L.
Chapter: 35 (Page no: 176) Melanoplus spp., Camnula pellucida (Scudder), grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Author(s): Erlandson, M. A. Goettel, M. S. Johnson, D. L.
Chapter: 36 (Page no: 185) Mindarus abietinus Koch, balsam twig aphid (Hemiptera: Mindaridae). Author(s): Cloutier, C. Jean, C.
Chapter: 37 (Page no: 190) Musca domestica L., house fly (Diptera: Muscidae). Author(s): Floate, K. D. Lysyk, T. J. Gibson, G. A. P. Galloway, T. D.
Chapter: 38 (Page no: 196) Neodiprion abietis (Harris), balsam fir sawfly (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae). Author(s): Thurston, G. S.
Chapter: 39 (Page no: 199) Neodiprion sertifer (Geoffroy), European pine sawfly, and N. lecontei (Fitch), redheaded pine sawfly (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae). Author(s): Frankenhuyzen, K. van
Chapter: 40 (Page no: 201) Orgyia leucostigma (J.E. Smith), whitemarked tussock moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Author(s): Thurston, G. S.
Chapter: 41 (Page no: 204) Orgyia pseudotsugata (McDunnough), Douglas-fir tussock moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Author(s): Otvos, I. S. Shepherd, R. F. Cunningham, J. C.
Chapter: 42 (Page no: 213) Panonychus ulmi (Koch), European red mite (Acari: Tetranychidae). Author(s): Hardman, J. M. Thistlewood, H. M. A.
Chapter: 43 (Page no: 217) Phyllonorycter mespilella (Hübner), a tentiform leafminer (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Author(s): Cossentine, J. E.
Chapter: 44 (Page no: 219) Pikonema alaskensis (Rohwer), yellowheaded spruce sawfly (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae). Author(s): Thurston, G. S.
Chapter: 45 (Page no: 221) Pissodes strobi (Peck), white pine weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Author(s): Hulme, M. A. Kenis, M.
Chapter: 46 (Page no: 228) Pristiphora geniculata (Hartig), mountain ash sawfly (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae). Author(s): West, R. J. Dixon, P. L. Quednau, F. W. Lim, K. P.
Chapter: 47 (Page no: 230) Prosimulium and Simulium spp., black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae). Author(s): Mason, P. G. Boisvert, M. Boisvert, J. Colbo, M. H.
Chapter: 48 (Page no: 238) Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), apple maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae). Author(s): Hoffmeister, T. S.
Chapter: 49 (Page no: 242) Rhopobota naevana (Hübner), blackheaded fireworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Author(s): Henderson, D. E. Li, S. Y. Prasad, R.
Chapter: 50 (Page no: 246) Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin), orange wheat blossom midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Author(s): Doane, J. F. Braun, M. P. Olfert, O. O. Affolter, F. Carl, K.
Chapter: 51 (Page no: 250) Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae). Author(s): Lysyk, T. J.
Chapter: 52 (Page no: 253) Strobilomyia neanthracina Michelsen and S. appalachensis Michelsen, spruce cone maggots (Diptera: Anthomyiidae). Author(s): Sweeney, J. D. Brockerhoff, E. G. Kenis, M. Turgeon, J. J.
Chapter: 53 (Page no: 259) Tetranychus urticae Koch, twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae). Author(s): Raworth, D. A. Gillespie, D. R. Roy, M. Thistlewood, H. M. A.
Chapter: 54 (Page no: 265) Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), greenhouse whitefly, and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), sweetpotato whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Author(s): Raworth, D. A. Gillespie, D. R. Shipp, J. L.
Chapter: 55 (Page no: 269) Trichoplusia ni Hübner, cabbage looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Author(s): Gillespie, D. R. Raworth, D. A. Shipp, J. L.
Chapter: 56 (Page no: 272) Xanthogaleruca luteola (Müller), elm leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Author(s): Thurston, G. S.
Chapter: 57 (Page no: 275) Yponomeuta malinellus Zeller, apple ermine moth (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). Author(s): Cossentine, J. Kuhlmann, U.
Chapter: 58 (Page no: 279) Zeiraphera canadensis Mutuura and Freeman, spruce bud moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Author(s): West, R. J. Kenis, M. Bourchier, R. S. Smith, S. M. Butt, G. W.
Chapter: 59 (Page no: 283) Acer, Alnus, Betula, Populus and Prunus spp., weedy hardwood trees (Aceraceae, Betulaceae, Salicaceae, Rosaceae). Author(s): Shamoun, S. F. Macey, D. E. Prasad, R. Winder, R. S.
Chapter: 60 (Page no: 290) Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., common ragweed (Asteraceae). Author(s): Teshler, M. P. DiTommaso, A. Gagnon, J. A. Watson, A. K.
Chapter: 61 (Page no: 295) Avena fatua L., wild oat (Poaceae). Author(s): Boyetchko, S. M.
Chapter: 62 (Page no: 298) Calamagrostis canadensis (Michaux) Palisot de Beauvois, marsh reed grass (Poaceae). Author(s): Mallett, K. I. Macey, D. E. Winder, R. S.
Chapter: 63 (Page no: 302) Centaurea diffusa Lamarck, diffuse knapweed, and Centaurea maculosa Lamarck, spotted knapweed (Asteraceae). Author(s): Bourchier, R. S. Mortensen, K. Crowe, M.
Chapter: 64 (Page no: 314) Chamerion angustifolium (L.) Holub, fireweed (Onagraceae). Author(s): Winder, R. S.
Chapter: 65 (Page no: 318) Cirsium arvense (L.) Scopoli, Canada thistle (Asteraceae). Author(s): McClay, A. S. Bourchier, R. S. Butts, R. A. Peschken, D. P.
Chapter: 66 (Page no: 331) Convolvulus arvensis L., field bindweed (Convolvulaceae). Author(s): McClay, A. S. Clerck-Floate, R. A. de
Chapter: 67 (Page no: 337) Cynoglossum officinale (L.), houndstongue (Boraginaceae). Author(s): Clerck-Floate, R. A. de Schwarzländer, M.
Chapter: 68 (Page no: 343) Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link, Scotch broom (Fabaceae). Author(s): Prasad, R.
Chapter: 69 (Page no: 346) Euphorbia esula (L.), leafy spurge, and Euphorbia cyparissias (L.), cypress spurge (Euphorbiaceae). Author(s): Bourchier, R. S. Erb, S. McClay, A. S. Gassmann, A.
Chapter: 70 (Page no: 358) Galium spurium L., false cleavers (Rubiaceae). Author(s): McClay, A. S. Sobhian, R. Zhang, W.
Chapter: 71 (Page no: 361) Hypericum perforatum L., St John's wort (Clusiaceae). Author(s): Jensen, K. I. N. Harris, P. Sampson, M. G.
Chapter: 72 (Page no: 368) Linaria dalmatica (L.) Miller, dalmatian toadflax (Scrophulariaceae). Author(s): Clerck-Floate, R. A. de Harris, P.
Chapter: 73 (Page no: 375) Linaria vulgaris Miller, yellow toadflax (Scrophulariaceae). Author(s): McClay, A. S. Clerck-Floate, R. A. de
Chapter: 74 (Page no: 383) Lythrum salicaria L., purple loosestrife (Lythraceae). Author(s): Lindgren, C. J. Corrigan, J. Clerck-Floate, R. A. de
Chapter: 75 (Page no: 391) Malva pusilla Smith, round-leaved mallow (Malvaceae). Author(s): Mortensen, K. Bailey, K. L.
Chapter: 76 (Page no: 395) Matricaria perforata Mérat, scentless chamomile (Asteraceae). Author(s): McClay, A. S. Hinz, H. L. Clerck-Floate, R. A. de Peschken, D. P.
Chapter: 77 (Page no: 402) Myriophyllum spicatum L., Eurasian water milfoil (Haloragaceae). Author(s): Ring, R. A. Winchester, N. N. MacRae, I. V.
Chapter: 78 (Page no: 407) Setaria viridis (L.) Beauvois, green foxtail (Poaceae). Author(s): Boyetchko, S. M.
Chapter: 79 (Page no: 411) Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke, bladder campion (Caryophyllaceae). Author(s): Peschken, D. P. McClay, A. S. Clerck-Floate, R. A. de
Chapter: 80 (Page no: 416) Sonchus arvensis L., perennial sow-thistle (Asteraceae). Author(s): McClay, A. S. Peschken, D. P.
Chapter: 81 (Page no: 425) Tanacetum vulgare L., common tansy (Asteraceae). Author(s): White, D. J.
Chapter: 82 (Page no: 427) Taraxacum officinale (Weber), dandelion (Asteraceae). Author(s): Stewart-Wade, S. M. Green, S. Boland, G. J. Teshler, M. P. Teshler, I. B. Watson, A. K. Sampson, M. G. Patterson, K. DiTommaso, A. Dupont, S.
Chapter: 83 (Page no: 431) Ulex europaeus L., gorse (Fabaceae). Author(s): Prasad, R.
Chapter: 84 (Page no: 434) Alternaria panax Whetzel, Alternaria blight (Pleosporaceae). Author(s): Traquair, J. A.
Chapter: 85 (Page no: 436) Botryotinia fuckeliana (de Bary) Whetzel, grey mould and Botrytis blight (Sclerotiniaceae). Author(s): Calpas, J. T. Tewari, J. P. Traquair, J. A.
Chapter: 86 (Page no: 441) Cochliobolus sativus (Ito and Kuribayashi) Drechsler ex Dastur, common root rot (Pleosporaceae). Author(s): Boyetchko, S. M. Tewari, J. P.
Chapter: 87 (Page no: 446) Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fischer, white pine blister rust (Cronartiaceae). Author(s): Bérubé, J. A.
Chapter: 88 (Page no: 448) Erwinia amylovora (Burrill) Winslow, Broadhurst, Buchanan, Krumwiede, Rogers and Smith, fire blight (Enterobacteriaceae). Author(s): Svircev, A. M. Gill, J. J. Sholberg, P.
Chapter: 89 (Page no: 452) Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtendahl f. sp. cyclaminis Gerlach, Fusarium wilt of cyclamen (Hyphomycetes). Author(s): Gracia-Garza, J. A.
Chapter: 90 (Page no: 456) Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtendahl f. sp. lycopersici, tomato wilt (Hyphomycetes). Author(s): Bao, J. Lazarovits, G.
Chapter: 91 (Page no: 461) Heterobasidion annosum (Fries) Brefeld, annosus root rot (Polyporaceae). Author(s): Laflamme, G.
Chapter: 92 (Page no: 464) Leptosphaeria maculans (Desmazières) Cesati and De Notaris, blackleg of canola (Leptosphaeriaceae). Author(s): Kharbanda, P. D. Yang, J. Beatty, P. H. Tewari, J. P. Jensen, S. E.
Chapter: 93 (Page no: 468) Monilinia fructicola (Winter) Honey, brown rot (Hyphomycetes). Author(s): Zhou, T. Sholberg, P.
Chapter: 94 (Page no: 471) Penicillium expansum Link, blue mould of apple (Hyphomycetes). Author(s): Zhou, T. Sholberg, P.
Chapter: 95 (Page no: 475) Phytophthora cactorum (Lebert and Cohn) Schröter, crown and root rot (Pythiaceae). Author(s): Utkhede, R. S.
Chapter: 96 (Page no: 478) Pythium spp., damping-off, root and crown rot (Pythiaceae). Author(s): Paulitz, T. C. Huang, H. C. Gracia-Garza, J. A.
Chapter: 97 (Page no: 484) Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, damping-off and seedling blight (Hyphomycetes). Author(s): Traquair, J. A. Huang, H. C. Boyetchko, S. M. Jabaji-Hare, S.
Chapter: 98 (Page no: 488) Sclerotinia homoeocarpa F. T. Bennett, dollar spot of turfgrass (Sclerotiniaceae). Author(s): Boland, G. J. Zhou, T. Boulter, J. I.
Chapter: 99 (Page no: 493) Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Libert) de Bary and Sclerotinia minor Jagger, sclerotinia diseases (Sclerotiniaceae). Author(s): Huang, H. C. Bardin, S. D. Boland, G. J. Reeleder, R. D. Boyetchko, S. M.
Chapter: 100 (Page no: 501) Sphaerotheca and Erysiphe spp., powdery mildews (Erysiphaceae). Author(s): Bélanger, R. R. Jarvis, W. R. Traquair, J. A.
Chapter: 101 (Page no: 505) Venturia inaequalis (Cooke) Winter, apple scab (Venturiaceae). Author(s): Carisse, O. Bernier, J. Philion, V.
Chapter: 102 (Page no: 509) Verticillium dahliae Klebahn, Verticillium wilt (Moniliaceae), and Streptomyces scabies (Thaxter) Lambert and Loria, potato scab (Streptomycetaceae). Author(s): Lazarovits, G. Tenuta, M. Conn, K. L. Soltani, N.