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CAB eBooks

Ebooks on agriculture and the applied life sciences from CAB International

CABI Book Chapter

Long distance transport and welfare of farm animals.

Book cover for Long distance transport and welfare of farm animals.


The book is a compilation of articles on the effect of animal transport on the food safety and quality, health and welfare of livestock animals for agricultural and processing industry. The implication of long distance transport of animals for slaughter is highlighted. Topics discussed are: science of animal welfare; economics; physiology of diseases; legislation; meat quality; enforcement of tran...


Chapter 6 (Page no: 137)

The welfare of livestock during sea transport.

Large numbers of livestock are reared for transport overseas, and the long duration of the journey and the changes in the animals' environments provide special challenges compared to short-distance transport. A description is provided of the most common methods of transporting live animals by sea for slaughter internationally. The biggest exporter in the world is Australia and the main markets are South-east Asia and the Middle East. The most common livestock transported are cattle and sheep, but goats, camels, buffaloes, pigs and horses may also be transported alive. It is emphasized that multiple factors impacting on animal welfare are involved before, during and after the ship voyage; these include mustering, shearing (in the case of sheep), transport to feedlots and several changes of environment that can cause fear and anxiety. Information on the welfare of exported cattle and sheep on transport ships from Australia comes mainly from a survey of expert opinion completed in 2005. This found that the major stressors on ship were believed to be clinical diseases, especially inappetence and salmonellosis in the case of sheep, heat stress, high stocking density and high ammonia levels. The reported mortality rate is considerably greater for sheep than cattle, particularly due to failure to eat in the sheep, but has tended to decline for both species over the last 5 years. Other potential stressors, about which little is known, include noise, motion sickness, changes in lighting patterns and novel environments.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 1) Science of animal welfare. Author(s): Appleby, M. C.
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 18) Economic aspects. Author(s): Appleby, M. C. Cussen, V. Garcés, L. Lambert, L. A. Turner, J.
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 69) Physiology and disease. Author(s): Manteca, X.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 77) Meat quality. Author(s): María, G. A.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 113) Enforcement of transport regulations: the EU as case study. Author(s): Cussen, V. A.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 157) The welfare of livestock during road transport. Author(s): Broom, D. M.
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 182) Africa. Author(s): Menczer, K.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 218) North America. Author(s): Engebretson, M.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 261) South America. Author(s): Gallo, C. B. Tadich, T. A.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 288) Asia. Author(s): Li, P. J. Rahman, A. Brooke, P. D. B. Collins, L. M.
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 324) Australia and New Zealand. Author(s): Fisher, M. W. Jones, B. S.
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 355) Europe. Author(s): Corson, S. Anderson, L.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 387) Middle East. Author(s): Rahman, S. A.

Chapter details

  • Author Affiliation
  • Centre for Animal Welfare and Ethics, School of Veterinary Science, University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia.
  • Year of Publication
  • 2008
  • ISBN
  • 9781845934033
  • Record Number
  • 20083128996