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Mycotoxins: detection methods, management, public health and agricultural trade.

Book cover for Mycotoxins: detection methods, management, public health and agricultural trade.

Description

This book is an outcome of the MycoGlobe conference in Accra. Most of the chapters are based on invited oral presentations made at the conference. The chapters in this book touch on issues including health, trade, ecology, epidemiology, occurrence, detection, management, awareness and policy. This book serves as a source of information on the occurrence and impact of mycotoxins on everything from ...

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Chapter 4 (Page no: 29)

Mycotoxins: a global problem.

The five most important naturally occurring mycotoxins in human foods and animal feeds are aflatoxin, ochratoxin, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and fumonisin. Risk assessment is used to manage the risk from mycotoxins to protect human and animal health. Conventional risk assessment has two major components, i.e., exposure assessment and hazard assessment, which data are used to establish Maximum Tolerated Levels (MTLs). Most countries have established MTLs for total aflatoxins ranging from 4-20 ng/g. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has proposed MTLs for total fumonisins of 4 µg/g in whole maize and 2 ng/g in maize products for human consumption. The MTLs proposed by developed countries apply to commodities that they import and to foodstuffs consumed within their borders, but not to agricultural products that they export. Thus conventional risk assessment has helped manage the risk from mycotoxins in developed countries but has not helped in developing countries that import foodstuffs (or receive food aid). The situation with fumonisins in maize is complicated further by large differences in maize consumption by different populations, e.g., from ∼5 g/person/day in Europe to ∼500 g/person/day in rural Africa. The differences in maize intake have a marked effect on the Probable Daily Intake (PDI) of fumonisins by different populations. Subsistence farmers in Africa who consume homegrown maize have the highest maize intakes and also consume maize with the highest levels of fumonisin contamination. Conventional risk assessment has not been of value to them and leaves the people who are at the highest risk for mycotoxin exposure the least protected.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 3) The EU MycoGlobe project: global integration of mycotoxin and toxigenic fungal research for enhanced food safety. Author(s): Visconti, A. Perrone, G.
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 11) IITA's research-for-development agenda for Africa. Author(s): Blade, S.
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 19) Priorities for mycotoxin research in Africa identified by using the nominal group discussion technique. Author(s): Ranajit Bandyopadhyay Leslie, J. F. Frederiksen, R. A.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 41) Modulation of the human immune system by aflatoxin. Author(s): Jolly, P. E. Yi JiAng Ellis, W. O. Jia ShengWang Afriyie-Gyawu, E. Phillips, T. D. Williams, J. H.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 53) Aflatoxin exposure and impaired child growth in West Africa: an unexplored international public health burden? Author(s): Gong YunYun Turner, P. C. Hall, A. J. Wild, C. P.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 67) Economic impact of aflatoxin contamination in sub-Saharan Africa. Author(s): Coulibaly, O. Hell, K. Ranajit Bandyopadhyay Hounkponou, S. Leslie, J. F.
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 77) European Union legislation on mycotoxins in food and feed: overview of the decision-making process and recent and future developments. Author(s): Verstraete, F.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 103) Mycotoxin contamination in foods in West and Central Africa. Author(s): Kpodo, K. A. Bankole, S. A.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 117) Mycotoxin contamination in food systems in Eastern and Southern Africa. Author(s): Siame, B. A. Nawa, I. N.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 127) The 2004 and 2005 aflatoxin tragedies in Kenya - a case study. Author(s): Okioma, M. N.
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 133) Mycotoxin problems in nuts and dried fruits from the Mediterranean basin. Author(s): Özay, G. Ozer, H.
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 139) Between emerging and historical problems: an overview of the main toxigenic fungi and mycotoxin concerns in Europe. Author(s): Logrieco, A. F. Moretti, A.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 155) The impact of mycotoxins in animal feeds. Author(s): Fink-Gremmels, J.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 171) Overview of detection methods for mycotoxins. Author(s): Pascale, M. Visconti, A.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 185) Mycotoxin concentration data quality: the role of sampling. Author(s): Miraglia, M. Santis, B. de Pannunzi, E. Debegnach, F. Brera, C.
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 195) Development of quantitative detection methods for Fusarium in cereals and their application. Author(s): Waalwijk, C. Vries, I. M. de Köhl, J. Xu XiuDe Lee, T. A. J. van der Kema, G. H. J.
Chapter: 18 (Page no: 209) Pre- and postharvest management of aflatoxin contamination in peanuts. Author(s): Waliyar, F. Kumar, P. L. Traoré, A. Ntare, B. R. Diarra, B. Kodio, O.
Chapter: 19 (Page no: 219) Pre- and postharvest management of aflatoxin in maize: an African perspective. Author(s): Hell, K. Fandohan, P. Ranajit Bandyopadhyay Kiewnick, S. Sikora, R. Cotty, P. J.
Chapter: 20 (Page no: 231) Management of ochratoxin A in the cocoa supply chain: a summary of work by the CAOBISCO/ECA/FCC working group on ochratoxin A. Author(s): Gilmour, M. Lindblom, M.
Chapter: 21 (Page no: 245) Prevention of ochratoxin A in grapes and wine. Author(s): Battilani, P.
Chapter: 22 (Page no: 257) Molecular approaches to development of resistance to preharvest aflatoxin contamination. Author(s): Deepak Bhatnagar Kanniah Rajasekaran Cary, J. W. Brown, R. Yu JiuJiang Cleveland, T. E.
Chapter: 23 (Page no: 277) Breeding maize for resistance to mycotoxins at IITA. Author(s): Menkir, A. Brown, R. L. Ranajit Bandyopadhyay Chen ZhiYuan Cleveland, T. E.
Chapter: 24 (Page no: 287) Etiology and management of aflatoxin contamination. Author(s): Cotty, P. J. Probst, C. Jaime-Garcia, R.
Chapter: 25 (Page no: 301) NovaSilTM clay for the management of dietary aflatoxins in human populations. Author(s): Afriyie-Gyawu, E. Williams, J. H. Huebner, H. J. Ankrah, N. A. Ofori-Adjei, D. Jolly, P. E. Wang JiaSheng Phillips, T. D.
Chapter: 26 (Page no: 309) Food processing to reduce mycotoxins in Africa. Author(s): Fandohan, P. Hell, K. Marasas, W. F. O.
Chapter: 27 (Page no: 317) Indoor airborne exposure to molds and mycotoxins. Author(s): Shelton, B. G. Leslie, J. F.
Chapter: 28 (Page no: 327) Are Ghanaians aware of the aflatoxin menace? Author(s): Awuah, R. T. Agyemang, K. O. Fialor, S. C. Jolly, C. M.
Chapter: 29 (Page no: 335) Institutional aspects of Sanitary and Phytosanitary issues in ECOWAS trade. Author(s): Hughes, J. d'A. Ranajit Bandyopadhyay Makinde, K. Olembo, S.
Chapter: 30 (Page no: 349) Institutional stakeholders in mycotoxin issues - past, present and future. Author(s): Williams, J. H.
Chapter: 31 (Page no: 359) Institutionalizing mycotoxin testing in Africa. Author(s): Waliyar, F. Siambi, M. Jones, R. Reddy, S. V. Chibonga, D. Kumar, P. L. Denloye, S.
Chapter: 32 (Page no: 369) Prevention strategies for trichothecenes and ochratoxin in cereals. Author(s): Magan, N. Olsen, M. Aldred, D.
Chapter: 33 (Page no: 387) FAO program on mycotoxin management. Author(s): Piñeiro, M.
Chapter: 34 (Page no: 403) Mycotoxin research in USAID's CRSP Programs. Author(s): Yohe, J. M. Williams, J. H.
Chapter: 35 (Page no: 413) CGIAR research-for-development program on mycotoxins. Author(s): Ortiz, R. Ban, T. Ranajit Bandyopadhyay Banziger, M. Bergvinson, D. Hell, K. James, B. Jeffers, D. Kumar, P. L. Menkir, A. Murakami, J. Nigam, S. N. Upadhyaya, H. D. Waliyar, F.