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CABI Book Chapter

Mycotoxins: detection methods, management, public health and agricultural trade.

Book cover for Mycotoxins: detection methods, management, public health and agricultural trade.

Description

This book is an outcome of the MycoGlobe conference in Accra. Most of the chapters are based on invited oral presentations made at the conference. The chapters in this book touch on issues including health, trade, ecology, epidemiology, occurrence, detection, management, awareness and policy. This book serves as a source of information on the occurrence and impact of mycotoxins on everything from ...

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Chapter 25 (Page no: 301)

NovaSilTM clay for the management of dietary aflatoxins in human populations.

Cost-effective interventions that reduce human diseases and death from aflatoxin exposure are high priorities particularly for developing nations. A calcium montmorillonite clay, NovaSilTM, when mixed at low inclusion rates with animal feeds can act as a selective enterosorbent for aflatoxins. NovaSilTM sequesters aflatoxins in the gastrointestinal tract and neutralizes their toxic effects by reducing the bioavailability of the toxins in the blood and other organs. These findings are especially significant for developing countries since clay-based strategies for managing aflatoxicosis would be practical, culturally acceptable, sustainable and unique in reducing external exposure and risk. When included in the diet of animals at levels up to 2.0% (w/w), NovaSilTM clay did not interfere with vitamin or micronutrient utilization. These results also support the hypothesis that NovaSilTM clay interventions in developing countries could have a major impact on health and well-being of susceptible humans who are highly and frequently exposed to these dietary toxins without compromising their nutritional status. Recent work has confirmed the relative safety of NovaSilTM in a long-term rodent study at and in a Phase I Adverse Events trial. No significant NovaSilTM-related effects were observed in either study, and the conclusions were that NovaSilTM should be tested in a Phase II human trial in Ghana. A study population in Ghana has been identified that is exposed to high levels of dietary aflatoxins based on biomarkers in their blood and urine samples. This study will evaluate the consequences of NovaSilTM treatment on aflatoxin exposure over a 3-month period. In summary, enterosorption strategies, based on dietary NovaSilTM clay, hold great promise for the management of aflatoxins in high-risk human populations especially in developing countries. The remedy is novel, inexpensive and easily disseminated.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 3) The EU MycoGlobe project: global integration of mycotoxin and toxigenic fungal research for enhanced food safety. Author(s): Visconti, A. Perrone, G.
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 11) IITA's research-for-development agenda for Africa. Author(s): Blade, S.
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 19) Priorities for mycotoxin research in Africa identified by using the nominal group discussion technique. Author(s): Ranajit Bandyopadhyay Leslie, J. F. Frederiksen, R. A.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 29) Mycotoxins: a global problem. Author(s): Marasas, W. F. O. Gelderblom, W. C. A. Shephard, G. S. Vismer, H. F.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 41) Modulation of the human immune system by aflatoxin. Author(s): Jolly, P. E. Yi JiAng Ellis, W. O. Jia ShengWang Afriyie-Gyawu, E. Phillips, T. D. Williams, J. H.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 53) Aflatoxin exposure and impaired child growth in West Africa: an unexplored international public health burden? Author(s): Gong YunYun Turner, P. C. Hall, A. J. Wild, C. P.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 67) Economic impact of aflatoxin contamination in sub-Saharan Africa. Author(s): Coulibaly, O. Hell, K. Ranajit Bandyopadhyay Hounkponou, S. Leslie, J. F.
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 77) European Union legislation on mycotoxins in food and feed: overview of the decision-making process and recent and future developments. Author(s): Verstraete, F.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 103) Mycotoxin contamination in foods in West and Central Africa. Author(s): Kpodo, K. A. Bankole, S. A.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 117) Mycotoxin contamination in food systems in Eastern and Southern Africa. Author(s): Siame, B. A. Nawa, I. N.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 127) The 2004 and 2005 aflatoxin tragedies in Kenya - a case study. Author(s): Okioma, M. N.
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 133) Mycotoxin problems in nuts and dried fruits from the Mediterranean basin. Author(s): Özay, G. Ozer, H.
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 139) Between emerging and historical problems: an overview of the main toxigenic fungi and mycotoxin concerns in Europe. Author(s): Logrieco, A. F. Moretti, A.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 155) The impact of mycotoxins in animal feeds. Author(s): Fink-Gremmels, J.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 171) Overview of detection methods for mycotoxins. Author(s): Pascale, M. Visconti, A.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 185) Mycotoxin concentration data quality: the role of sampling. Author(s): Miraglia, M. Santis, B. de Pannunzi, E. Debegnach, F. Brera, C.
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 195) Development of quantitative detection methods for Fusarium in cereals and their application. Author(s): Waalwijk, C. Vries, I. M. de Köhl, J. Xu XiuDe Lee, T. A. J. van der Kema, G. H. J.
Chapter: 18 (Page no: 209) Pre- and postharvest management of aflatoxin contamination in peanuts. Author(s): Waliyar, F. Kumar, P. L. Traoré, A. Ntare, B. R. Diarra, B. Kodio, O.
Chapter: 19 (Page no: 219) Pre- and postharvest management of aflatoxin in maize: an African perspective. Author(s): Hell, K. Fandohan, P. Ranajit Bandyopadhyay Kiewnick, S. Sikora, R. Cotty, P. J.
Chapter: 20 (Page no: 231) Management of ochratoxin A in the cocoa supply chain: a summary of work by the CAOBISCO/ECA/FCC working group on ochratoxin A. Author(s): Gilmour, M. Lindblom, M.
Chapter: 21 (Page no: 245) Prevention of ochratoxin A in grapes and wine. Author(s): Battilani, P.
Chapter: 22 (Page no: 257) Molecular approaches to development of resistance to preharvest aflatoxin contamination. Author(s): Deepak Bhatnagar Kanniah Rajasekaran Cary, J. W. Brown, R. Yu JiuJiang Cleveland, T. E.
Chapter: 23 (Page no: 277) Breeding maize for resistance to mycotoxins at IITA. Author(s): Menkir, A. Brown, R. L. Ranajit Bandyopadhyay Chen ZhiYuan Cleveland, T. E.
Chapter: 24 (Page no: 287) Etiology and management of aflatoxin contamination. Author(s): Cotty, P. J. Probst, C. Jaime-Garcia, R.
Chapter: 26 (Page no: 309) Food processing to reduce mycotoxins in Africa. Author(s): Fandohan, P. Hell, K. Marasas, W. F. O.
Chapter: 27 (Page no: 317) Indoor airborne exposure to molds and mycotoxins. Author(s): Shelton, B. G. Leslie, J. F.
Chapter: 28 (Page no: 327) Are Ghanaians aware of the aflatoxin menace? Author(s): Awuah, R. T. Agyemang, K. O. Fialor, S. C. Jolly, C. M.
Chapter: 29 (Page no: 335) Institutional aspects of Sanitary and Phytosanitary issues in ECOWAS trade. Author(s): Hughes, J. d'A. Ranajit Bandyopadhyay Makinde, K. Olembo, S.
Chapter: 30 (Page no: 349) Institutional stakeholders in mycotoxin issues - past, present and future. Author(s): Williams, J. H.
Chapter: 31 (Page no: 359) Institutionalizing mycotoxin testing in Africa. Author(s): Waliyar, F. Siambi, M. Jones, R. Reddy, S. V. Chibonga, D. Kumar, P. L. Denloye, S.
Chapter: 32 (Page no: 369) Prevention strategies for trichothecenes and ochratoxin in cereals. Author(s): Magan, N. Olsen, M. Aldred, D.
Chapter: 33 (Page no: 387) FAO program on mycotoxin management. Author(s): Piñeiro, M.
Chapter: 34 (Page no: 403) Mycotoxin research in USAID's CRSP Programs. Author(s): Yohe, J. M. Williams, J. H.
Chapter: 35 (Page no: 413) CGIAR research-for-development program on mycotoxins. Author(s): Ortiz, R. Ban, T. Ranajit Bandyopadhyay Banziger, M. Bergvinson, D. Hell, K. James, B. Jeffers, D. Kumar, P. L. Menkir, A. Murakami, J. Nigam, S. N. Upadhyaya, H. D. Waliyar, F.