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CABI Book Chapter

Introgression from genetically modified plants into wild relatives.

Book cover for Introgression from genetically modified plants into wild relatives.

Description

Introgression is the incorporation of a gene from one organism complex into another as a result of hybridization. A major concern with the use of genetically modified (GM) plants is the unintentional spread of the new genes from cultivated plants to their wild relatives and the subsequent impacts on the ecology of wild plants and their associated flora and fauna. The book reviews these issues, foc...

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Chapter 16 (Page no: 203)

Crop-wild interaction within the Beta vulgaris complex: agronomic aspects of weed beet in the Czech Republic.

This review is focused on weed beet in the Czech Republic (Central Europe). In our conditions, beet is quite a new weed. Weed beet has occurred more frequently since the end of the 1980s when beet seed started to be imported from southeastern European countries. By the beginning of the 1990s, about 50% of fields used for sugarbeet production had already been contaminated by weed beet. Nowadays, the infestation of many fields used for intensive sugarbeet production is already so high that it is impossible to grow sugarbeet in them. The growth habit of weed beet varies significantly from plagiotropic to orthotropic forms and from large to small root bodies. Our observations have shown a high degree of variance of morphological traits between localities as well as within populations. Genetic variability was high and unstable in all populations. This was due to different hybridizations between weedy and cultivated beet in different geographical localities where the seed was produced. Seed testing is an important method for the prevention of weed beet spread, and every year some seed lots with weed beet contamination higher than the permitted 0.05% can be found. In these cases, seed production companies have to pay the farmers for the additional costs of weed beet control. As a direct control method, hand pulling can still be used, especially on fields with low weed beet infestation. When higher levels of infestation occur, mechanical hoeing can be used, but weed beet plants survive within the crop rows. Chemical control using non-selective herbicides can be highly effective. Current control systems do not provide sufficient weed beet suppression in sugarbeet fields as the conditions of intensive sugarbeet crop production seem to favour the introduction and spread of weed beet. New management tools for effective control of weed beet populations are expected with the introduction of GM herbicide-tolerant sugarbeet cultivars. However, it will also be very important to study the influence of the agronomy and the cropping systems on the dynamics of the weed beet complex in order to quantify and limit gene flow from transgenic beet to weed beets.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 1) Introduction and the AIGM research project. Author(s): Sweet, J. Nijs, H. C. M. den Bartsch, D.
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 7) Hybridization in nature: lessons for the introgression of transgenes into wild relatives. Author(s): Tienderen, P. H. van
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 27) Introgressive hybridization between invasive and native plant species - a case study in the genus Rorippa (Brassicaceae). Author(s): Bleeker, W.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 41) Hybrids between cultivated and wild carrots: a life history. Author(s): Hauser, T. P. Bjørn, G. K. Magnussen, L. Shim SangIn
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 53) Gene exchange between wild and crop in Beta vulgaris: how easy is hybridization and what will happen in later generations? Author(s): Dijk, H. van
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 63) Hybridization between wheat and wild relatives, a European Union research programme. Author(s): Jacot, Y. Ammann, K. Al-Mazyad, P. R. Chueca, C. David, J. Gressel, J. Loureiro, I. Wang HaiBo Benavente, E.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 75) Molecular genetic assessment of the potential for gene escape in strawberry, a model perennial study crop. Author(s): Westman, A. L. Medel, S. Spira, T. P. Rajapakse, S. Tonkyn, D. W. Abbott, A. G.
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 89) Gene flow in forest trees: gene migration patterns and landscape modelling of transgene dispersal in hybrid poplar. Author(s): Slavov, G. T. DiFazio, S. P. Strauss, S. H.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 107) Implications for hybridization and introgression between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and wild turnip (B. rapa) from an agricultural perspective. Author(s): Norris, C. Sweet, J. Parker, J. Law, J.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 125) Asymmetric gene flow and introgression between domesticated and wild populations. Author(s): Papa, R. Gepts, P.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 139) Crop to wild gene flow in rice and its ecological consequences. Author(s): Lu BaoRong Song ZhiPing Chen JiaKuan
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 151) Potential for gene flow from herbicide-resistant GM soybeans to wild soya in the Russian Far East. Author(s): Dorokhov, D. Ignatov, A. Deineko, E. Serjapin, A. Ala, A. Skryabin, K.
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 163) Analysis of gene flow in the lettuce crop-weed complex. Author(s): Wiel, C. van de Flavell, A. Syed, N. Antonise, R. Voort, J. R. van der Linden, G. van der
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 173) Introgression of cultivar beet genes to wild beet in the Ukraine. Author(s): Slyvchenko, O. Bartsch, D.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 183) Crop-wild interaction within the Beta vulgaris complex: a comparative analysis of genetic diversity between seabeet and weed beet populations within the French sugarbeet production area. Author(s): Cuguen, J. Arnaud, J. F. Delescluse, M. Viard, F.
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 219) A protocol for evaluating the ecological risks associated with gene flow from transgenic crops into their wild relatives: the case of cultivated sunflower and wild Helianthus annuus. Author(s): Pilson, D. Snow, A. A. Rieseberg, L. H. Alexander, H. M.
Chapter: 18 (Page no: 235) A review on interspecific gene flow from oilseed rape to wild relatives. Author(s): Chèvre, A. M. Ammitzbøll, H. Breckling, B. Dietz-Pfeilstetter, A. Eber, F. Fargue, A. Gomez-Campo, C. Jenczewski, E. Jørgensen, R. Lavigne, C. Meier, M. S. Nijs, H. C. M. den Pascher, K. Seguin-Swartz, G. Sweet, J. Stewart, C. N., Jr. Warwick, S.
Chapter: 19 (Page no: 253) Gene introgression and consequences in Brassica. Author(s): Jørgensen, R. B. Ammitzbøll, H. Hansen, L. B. Johannessen, M. Andersen, B. Hauser, T. P.
Chapter: 20 (Page no: 263) Transgene expression and genetic introgression associated with the hybridization of GFP transgenic canola (Brassica napus L.) and wild accessions of bird rape (Brassica rapa L.). Author(s): Halfhill, M. D. Warwick, S. I. Stewart, C. N., Jr.
Chapter: 21 (Page no: 279) Insect-resistant transgenic plants and their environmental impact. Author(s): Hails, R. S. Raymond, B.
Chapter: 22 (Page no: 297) Risk assessment of genetically modified undomesticated plants. Author(s): Wennström, A.
Chapter: 23 (Page no: 309) A tiered approach to risk assessment of virus resistance traits based on studies with wild brassicas in England. Author(s): Pallett, D. W. Thurston, M. I. Edwards, M. L. Naylor, M. Wang Hui Alexander, M. Gray, A. J. Mitchell, E. Raybould, A. F. Walsh, J. A. Cooper, J. I.
Chapter: 24 (Page no: 323) Environmental and agronomic consequences of herbicide-resistant (HR) canola in Canada. Author(s): Warwick, S. I. Beckie, H. J. Simard, M. J. Légère, A. Nair, H. Séguin-Swartz, G.
Chapter: 25 (Page no: 339) Prospects of a hybrid distribution map between GM Brassica napus and wild B. rapa across the UK. Author(s): Wilkinson, M. Elliott, L. Allainguillaume, J. Norris, C. Welters, R. Alexander, M. Cuccato, G. Sweet, J. Shaw, M. Mason, D.
Chapter: 26 (Page no: 351) Potential and limits of modelling to predict the impact of transgenic crops in wild species. Author(s): Lavigne, C. Devaux, C. Deville, A. Garnier, A. Klein, É. K. Lecomte, J. Pivard, S. Gouyon, P. H.
Chapter: 27 (Page no: 365) Introgression of GM plants and the EU guidance note for monitoring. Author(s): Nijs, H. C. M. den Bartsch, D.

Chapter details

  • Author Affiliation
  • Department of Agroecology and Biometeorology, Faculty of Agronomy and Natural Resources, Czech University of Agriculture in Prague, Kamýcká 957, 165 21 Praha 6-Suchdol, Czech Republic.
  • Year of Publication
  • 2004
  • ISBN
  • 9780851998169
  • Record Number
  • 20093009116