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Introgression from genetically modified plants into wild relatives.

Book cover for Introgression from genetically modified plants into wild relatives.

Description

Introgression is the incorporation of a gene from one organism complex into another as a result of hybridization. A major concern with the use of genetically modified (GM) plants is the unintentional spread of the new genes from cultivated plants to their wild relatives and the subsequent impacts on the ecology of wild plants and their associated flora and fauna. The book reviews these issues, foc...

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Chapter 27 (Page no: 365)

Introgression of GM plants and the EU guidance note for monitoring.

According to EU Directive 2001/18/EC and its Appendix VII, there will be mandatory monitoring of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) placed on the market to: (i) trace and identify eventual effects of the placing on the market of GMOs; and (ii) give feedback to the risk assessment procedure. A short overview is given of the accompanying Guidance Note for monitoring that has been implemented recently. This contribution will be restricted to aspects related to genetically modified higher plants (GMPs), and to their interactions, and to those aspects that directly relate to the escape and consecutive introgression of transgenes. Introgression of transgenes in a wild relative can be through GMP pollen siring hybrids directly, and indirectly through initial dispersal of the whole GMP (as seed or vegetative diaspore), and subsequent hybridization. According to the EU, the monitoring will have two focuses: (i) the possible effects of the GM crop, identified in the formal risk assessment (RA) procedure; and (ii) unforeseen effects. Where there is scientifically valid evidence of a potential adverse effect linked to the genetic modification, then, in the first part, 'case-specific monitoring' should be carried out after commercialization in order to confirm the assumptions of RA. Any evaluation of the potential consequence of that effect should be science based and compared with baseline information. In the second part, unanticipated effects of the environmental release are subject to a general surveillance programme that should be implemented independently of whether the RA found an indication of a harmful effect or not. The Guidance Note explicitly suggests that this latter part may well be long-term monitoring, given the fact that unexpected effects can be of delayed and long-term type. It is emphasized that, basic to the monitoring and the consecutive evaluation, is the availability of baseline data which give reference values for weighing of the GMP effects. It is acknowledged that there is great demand for such data sets. In any case, in order to be able to follow the consequences of transgene introgression, their identification is a prerequisite. Therefore, cost-effective and unambiguous markers may be placed in the GMPs, such as PCR-able eventually non-coding sequences in the constructs. In general, gene flow is mostly unavoidable. It is therefore the quality of the GMP traits that counts. A large amount of gene flow from a GMP with environmentally neutral traits is of less concern than minimal gene flow of plant fitness-enhancing traits. The Directive places the full responsibility for the establishment of the entire monitoring plan and the data report (to the competent state authorities) with the consent holder, in many cases private companies. It is questioned whether this is practical and feasible; therefore, it is suggested that part of the general surveillance, as well as additional monitoring elements outside the regulatory requirements, should be integrated in existing (state-owned) monitoring networks.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 1) Introduction and the AIGM research project. Author(s): Sweet, J. Nijs, H. C. M. den Bartsch, D.
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 7) Hybridization in nature: lessons for the introgression of transgenes into wild relatives. Author(s): Tienderen, P. H. van
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 27) Introgressive hybridization between invasive and native plant species - a case study in the genus Rorippa (Brassicaceae). Author(s): Bleeker, W.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 41) Hybrids between cultivated and wild carrots: a life history. Author(s): Hauser, T. P. Bjørn, G. K. Magnussen, L. Shim SangIn
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 53) Gene exchange between wild and crop in Beta vulgaris: how easy is hybridization and what will happen in later generations? Author(s): Dijk, H. van
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 63) Hybridization between wheat and wild relatives, a European Union research programme. Author(s): Jacot, Y. Ammann, K. Al-Mazyad, P. R. Chueca, C. David, J. Gressel, J. Loureiro, I. Wang HaiBo Benavente, E.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 75) Molecular genetic assessment of the potential for gene escape in strawberry, a model perennial study crop. Author(s): Westman, A. L. Medel, S. Spira, T. P. Rajapakse, S. Tonkyn, D. W. Abbott, A. G.
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 89) Gene flow in forest trees: gene migration patterns and landscape modelling of transgene dispersal in hybrid poplar. Author(s): Slavov, G. T. DiFazio, S. P. Strauss, S. H.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 107) Implications for hybridization and introgression between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and wild turnip (B. rapa) from an agricultural perspective. Author(s): Norris, C. Sweet, J. Parker, J. Law, J.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 125) Asymmetric gene flow and introgression between domesticated and wild populations. Author(s): Papa, R. Gepts, P.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 139) Crop to wild gene flow in rice and its ecological consequences. Author(s): Lu BaoRong Song ZhiPing Chen JiaKuan
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 151) Potential for gene flow from herbicide-resistant GM soybeans to wild soya in the Russian Far East. Author(s): Dorokhov, D. Ignatov, A. Deineko, E. Serjapin, A. Ala, A. Skryabin, K.
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 163) Analysis of gene flow in the lettuce crop-weed complex. Author(s): Wiel, C. van de Flavell, A. Syed, N. Antonise, R. Voort, J. R. van der Linden, G. van der
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 173) Introgression of cultivar beet genes to wild beet in the Ukraine. Author(s): Slyvchenko, O. Bartsch, D.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 183) Crop-wild interaction within the Beta vulgaris complex: a comparative analysis of genetic diversity between seabeet and weed beet populations within the French sugarbeet production area. Author(s): Cuguen, J. Arnaud, J. F. Delescluse, M. Viard, F.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 203) Crop-wild interaction within the Beta vulgaris complex: agronomic aspects of weed beet in the Czech Republic. Author(s): Soukup, J. Holec, J.
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 219) A protocol for evaluating the ecological risks associated with gene flow from transgenic crops into their wild relatives: the case of cultivated sunflower and wild Helianthus annuus. Author(s): Pilson, D. Snow, A. A. Rieseberg, L. H. Alexander, H. M.
Chapter: 18 (Page no: 235) A review on interspecific gene flow from oilseed rape to wild relatives. Author(s): Chèvre, A. M. Ammitzbøll, H. Breckling, B. Dietz-Pfeilstetter, A. Eber, F. Fargue, A. Gomez-Campo, C. Jenczewski, E. Jørgensen, R. Lavigne, C. Meier, M. S. Nijs, H. C. M. den Pascher, K. Seguin-Swartz, G. Sweet, J. Stewart, C. N., Jr. Warwick, S.
Chapter: 19 (Page no: 253) Gene introgression and consequences in Brassica. Author(s): Jørgensen, R. B. Ammitzbøll, H. Hansen, L. B. Johannessen, M. Andersen, B. Hauser, T. P.
Chapter: 20 (Page no: 263) Transgene expression and genetic introgression associated with the hybridization of GFP transgenic canola (Brassica napus L.) and wild accessions of bird rape (Brassica rapa L.). Author(s): Halfhill, M. D. Warwick, S. I. Stewart, C. N., Jr.
Chapter: 21 (Page no: 279) Insect-resistant transgenic plants and their environmental impact. Author(s): Hails, R. S. Raymond, B.
Chapter: 22 (Page no: 297) Risk assessment of genetically modified undomesticated plants. Author(s): Wennström, A.
Chapter: 23 (Page no: 309) A tiered approach to risk assessment of virus resistance traits based on studies with wild brassicas in England. Author(s): Pallett, D. W. Thurston, M. I. Edwards, M. L. Naylor, M. Wang Hui Alexander, M. Gray, A. J. Mitchell, E. Raybould, A. F. Walsh, J. A. Cooper, J. I.
Chapter: 24 (Page no: 323) Environmental and agronomic consequences of herbicide-resistant (HR) canola in Canada. Author(s): Warwick, S. I. Beckie, H. J. Simard, M. J. Légère, A. Nair, H. Séguin-Swartz, G.
Chapter: 25 (Page no: 339) Prospects of a hybrid distribution map between GM Brassica napus and wild B. rapa across the UK. Author(s): Wilkinson, M. Elliott, L. Allainguillaume, J. Norris, C. Welters, R. Alexander, M. Cuccato, G. Sweet, J. Shaw, M. Mason, D.
Chapter: 26 (Page no: 351) Potential and limits of modelling to predict the impact of transgenic crops in wild species. Author(s): Lavigne, C. Devaux, C. Deville, A. Garnier, A. Klein, É. K. Lecomte, J. Pivard, S. Gouyon, P. H.

Chapter details

  • Author Affiliation
  • Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 318, 1098 SM Amsterdam, Netherlands.
  • Year of Publication
  • 2004
  • ISBN
  • 9780851998169
  • Record Number
  • 20093009127