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Ebooks on agriculture and the applied life sciences from CAB International

CABI Book Chapter

Combating micronutrient deficiencies: food-based approaches.

Book cover for Combating micronutrient deficiencies: food-based approaches.


This book, inclusive of 19 chapters, provides discussions on the benefits and limitations of food-based approaches for the prevention and control of micronutrient malnutrition. Different chapters focus on specific relevant topics, including current developments in food-based approaches and their program applications, relevance of agricultural interventions to nutrition, impact of multi-sectoral pr...


Chapter 4 (Page no: 76)

A 3-year cohort study to assess the impact of an integrated food- and livelihood-based model on undernutrition in rural western Kenya.

Reducing extreme poverty and hunger is the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG). With undernutrition contributing to one third of all child deaths, improving nutrition is a precondition for accelerating progress towards other MDG targets. While the role of technical interventions such as micronutrient fortification and supplementation in reducing morbidity and mortality has been well documented, evidence to support more comprehensive multi-sectoral approaches remains inconclusive. This chapter aims to evaluate the impact of an integrated food- and livelihood-based model on nutrition-related outcomes in rural western Kenya. A 3-year prospective cohort study was undertaken among 300 randomly selected wealth-stratified households. Detailed socio-economic and health surveys were conducted. A nutrition module assessed household levels of food security, food consumption frequency and diet diversity. This was complemented by anthropometric measurement and assessments of serum levels of vitamin A among children under 5 years old. The average food insecurity score decreased from 5.21 at baseline to 4.13 at follow-up (P<0.0001). Average diet diversity scores for daily, weekly and monthly time periods increased from 6.7 to 7.3; from 10.7 to 11.2; and from 12.4 to 12.6, respectively (P<0.0001). Daily consumption for 14 out of 16 food groups increased significantly. For children under 2 years of age, underweight and stunting decreased from 26.2% to 3.9% (P=0.002) and from 62.3% to 38.3% (P=0.014), respectively. Vitamin A deficiency as measured by serum vitamin A levels decreased from 70.0% to 33.3% (P=0.007) for children under 5 years old. This study presents encouraging evidence that a multi-sectoral food- and livelihood-based model can improve diet quality, enhance food security and positively affect childhood nutritional outcomes. The wider application of this approach to a diversity of agro-ecological zones in sub-Saharan Africa is currently being assessed.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 7) Strategies for preventing multi-micro nutrient deficiencies: a review of experiences with food-based approaches in developing countries. Author(s): Gibson, R. S.
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 28) Addressing micronutrient malnutrition to achieve nutrition security. Author(s): Shetty, P.
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 41) Agricultural interventions and nutrition: lessons from the past and new evidence. Author(s): Arimond, M. Hawkes, C. Ruel, M. T. Sifri, Z. Berti, P. R. Leroy, J. L. Low, J. W. Brown, L. R. Frongillo, E. A.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 92) Food-based, low-cost strategies to combat micronutrient deficiencies: evidence-based interventions in Lesotho and Malawi. Author(s): Aphane, J. M. Pilime, N. Saronga, N. J.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 117) Animal-source foods as a food-based approach to address nutrient deficiencies and functional outcomes: a study among Kenyan schoolchildren. Author(s): Neumann, C. G. Bwibo, N. O. Gewa, C. A. Drorbaugh, N.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 137) Small-animal revolving funds: an innovative programming model to increase access to and consumption of animal-source foods by rural households in Malawi. Author(s): MacDonald, A. C. Main, B. J. Namarika, R. H. Yiannakis, M. E. Mildon, A. M.
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 150) Aquaculture's role in improving food and nutrition security. Author(s): Thompson, B. Subasinghe, R.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 163) A home gardening approach developed in South Africa to address vitamin A deficiency. Author(s): Faber, M. Laurie, S.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 183) AVRDC - the world vegetable center's approach to alleviate malnutrition. Author(s): Chadha, M. L. Engle, L. M. Hughes, J. d'A. Ledesma, D. R. Weinberger, K. M.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 198) Introducing vegetables into the India Mid-day Meal (MDM) programme: the potential for dietary change. Author(s): Muehlhoff, E. Ramana, R. Gopalan, H. Ramachandran, P.
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 214) Developing micronutrient-rich snacks for pre-conception and antenatal health: the Mumbai Maternal Nutrition Project (MMNP). Author(s): Shivashankaran, D. Gurumurthy, S. Kehoe, S. H. Chheda, P. S. Margetts, B. M. Muley-Lotankar, P. Agarwal, A. Brown, N. Sahariah, S. A. Taskar, V. Fall, C. H. D. Potdar, R. D.
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 224) Approaches and lessons learned for promoting dietary improvement in Pohnpei, Micronesia. Author(s): Englberger, L. Lorens, A. Pretrick, M. Raynor, B. Currie, J. Corsi, A. Kaufer, L. Naik, R. I. Spegal, R. Kuhnlein, H. V.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 254) A food systems approach to increase dietary zinc intake in Bangladesh based on an analysis of diet, rice production and processing. Author(s): Mayer, A. B. Latham, M. C. Duxbury, J. M. Hassan, N. Frongillo, E. A.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 268) Combating iron deficiency: food-based approaches. Author(s): Thompson, B.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 289) Human micronutrient deficiencies: linkages with micronutrient deficiencies in soils, crops and animal nutrition. Author(s): Nubé, M. Voortman, R. L.
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 312) Nationwide supplementation of sodium selenate to commercial fertilizers: history and 25-year results from the Finnish selenium monitoring programme. Author(s): Alfthan, G. Aspila, P. Ekholm, P. Eurola, M. Hartikainen, H. Hero, H. Hietaniemi, V. Root, T. Salminen, P. Venäläinen, E. R. Aro, A.
Chapter: 18 (Page no: 338) Leaf concentrate and other benefits of leaf fractionation. Author(s): Davys, M. N. G. Richardier, F. C. Kennedy, D. Mathan, O. de Collin, S. M. Subtil, J. Bertin, E. Davys, M. J.
Chapter: 19 (Page no: 366) Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs): a methodology for conducting economic studies of food-based interventions such as biofortification. Author(s): Pérez Suárez, S.

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