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Ebooks on agriculture and the applied life sciences from CAB International

CABI Book Chapter

Alternative systems for poultry: health, welfare and productivity.

Book cover for Alternative systems for poultry: health, welfare and productivity.


The proceedings is divided into seven parts with seventeen chapters. Part 1 discusses the alternative systems for poultry, impact of legislation and assurance schemes on alternative systems for poultry welfare and the politics and economics; while Part 2 deals with the effects of alternative systems on disease and health of poultry, production systems for laying hens and broilers and risk of human...


Chapter 15 (Page no: 297)

Nutritional challenges of alternative production systems.

Many of the nutritional challenges posed by alternative systems can be addressed by application of existing scientific knowledge. However, regulations applied to alternative systems may limit the nutritionist's freedom of action, particularly with regard to the ingredients which can be used to formulate diets. Practical comments on meeting the nutrition-related stipulations of the various regulations are included in the present chapter. It is possible to formulate diets without animal protein, potentially genetically modified organisms (e.g. soybean and maize products) and synthetic amino acids, but it is difficult to attain nutritional optima. On the positive side, in free range systems, the bird's nutritional inputs may be enhanced by access to forage plants and animals. Also, there is clearly greater scope for the bird to be provided with food in ways that give greater opportunities for a repertoire of feeding behaviour, such as feedstuff choice. Some alternative systems may increase the bird's energy requirements because of increased expenditure of energy on physical activity and on thermoregulation in a cooler environment. Since there is so much scope for variation in environmental factors in alternative systems, nutritional decisions may have to be made on an iterative basis, meaning that cooperation between the producer and the nutritionist may be the key to success. This is particularly true where there are strict regulatory limitations on rate of growth or final body weight. There is a tendency for alternative systems to have a greater ecological impact than conventional systems, largely because of the lower efficiency of nutrient utilization. This chapter comments on nutritional methods of helping to reduce environmental impact.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 1) What are alternative systems for poultry? Author(s): Fröhlich, E. K. F. Niebuhr, K. Schrader, L. Oester, H.
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 23) The impact of legislation and assurance schemes on alternative systems for poultry welfare. Author(s): Pritchard, D. G.
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 53) Politics and economics. Author(s): Appleby, M. C.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 62) The effects of alternative systems on disease and health of poultry. Author(s): Lister, S. Nijhuis, B. van
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 77) Production systems for laying hens and broilers and risk of human pathogens. Author(s): Hoorebeke, S. van Dewulf, J. Immerseel, F. van Jorgensen, F.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 97) Introduction to village and backyard poultry production. Author(s): Pym, R. A. E. Alders, R. G.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 110) Technology and programmes for sustainable improvement of village poultry production. Author(s): Besbes, B. Thieme, O. Rota, A. Guèye, E. F. Alders, R. G.
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 128) Production systems for waterfowl. Author(s): Guémené, D. Shi, Z. D. Guy, G.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 155) Game bird breeding, brooding and rearing - health and welfare. Author(s): Pennycott, T. Deeming, C. McMillan, M.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 169) Housing and management of layer breeders in rearing and production. Author(s): Thiele, H. H.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 190) Furnished cages for laying hens. Author(s): Elson, H. A. Tauson, R.
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 210) Performance, welfare, health and hygiene of laying hens in non-cage systems in comparison with cage systems. Author(s): Rodenburg, T. B. Reu, K. de Tuyttens, F. A. M.
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 225) Housing and management of broiler breeders and turkey breeders. Author(s): Jong, I. C. de Swalander, M.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 250) Alternative systems for meat chickens and turkeys: production, health and welfare. Author(s): Jones, T. A. Berk, J.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 316) Genotype-environment interaction: breeding layers with different requirements for varying housing systems. Author(s): Icken, W. Schmutz, M. Preisinger, R.
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 340) Is there a future for alternative production systems? Author(s): Sandilands, V. Hocking, P. M.