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CABI Book Chapter

Maternal and perinatal health in developing countries.

Book cover for Maternal and perinatal health in developing countries.

Description

The promotion of maternal health and mortality reduction is of worldwide importance, and constitutes a vital part of the UN Millennium Development Goals. The highest maternal mortality rates are in developing countries, where global and regional initiatives are needed to improve the systems and practices involved in maternal care and medical access. Taking a practical policy approach, this book co...

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Chapter 2 (Page no: 10)

The Millennium Development Goals.

The MDGs are a contract between the developed and the developing world to improve the quality of life in developing countries, laying out the responsibilities of both groups of countries in working towards achieving these goals. Developed countries are expected to provide 0.7% of GNP in official development assistance to finance development programmes. Developing countries should provide an appropriate policy environment, while increasing their investment in these activities. Three of the eight goals are health related and aim to achieve between 1990 and 2015: a two-thirds reduction in child deaths (MDG 4); a three-quarters decline in maternal deaths (MDG 5); and reversal of the HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis epidemics (MDG 6). Doubling the proportion of girls with a secondary education from 19% to 38% could reduce fertility from 5.3 to 3.9 children per woman and lower infant mortality from 81 to 38 deaths per 1000 births. Other MDGs focus on public health (safe water, sanitation, environmental protection), alleviation of poverty and hunger, and the determinants of development (education, gender equity, fair trade, debt management). Income inequity exacerbates inequalities between the rich and the poor. Globally, only 36% of poor women have access to skilled care at birth compared to 85% among the wealthiest. In Africa and South-east Asia, the regions with highest maternal and child death rates, universal access to community, primary level and preventive interventions for newborns and mothers could reduce morbidity and mortality by half. Achieving the MDGs for maternal and child health would require universal access to clinical services as well.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 1) An introduction to maternal and perinatal health. Author(s): Hussein, J. Blanc, A. K. Donnay, F. McCaw-Binns, A.
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 25) The politics of progress: the story of maternal mortality. Author(s): Graham, W. J.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 40) The epidemiology of maternal mortality. Author(s): Stanton, C. McCaw-Binns, A.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 51) The epidemiology of stillbirths and neonatal deaths. Author(s): Stanton, C. Lawn, J. E.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 64) Health systems. Author(s): Mavalankar, D. V. Raman, P. S.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 77) Financing maternity care. Author(s): Witter, S. Ensor, T.
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 96) Implementing clinical interventions within maternal health programmes. Author(s): Langer, A. Knight, H. Charnock, A. Wegner, M. N. Villar, J.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 114) Medical conditions in pregnancy. Author(s): Webber, R. McCaw-Binns, A. Hussein, J.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 127) Improving the availability of services. Author(s): Phoya, A. Mavalankar, D. V. Raman, P. S. Hussein, J.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 139) Geographical access, transport and referral systems. Author(s): Munjanja, S. P. Magure, T. Kandawasvika, G.
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 155) Demand for maternity care: beliefs, behaviour and social access. Author(s): Mumtaz, Z. Levay, A.
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 170) Empowering the community: BRAC's approach in Bangladesh. Author(s): Kaosar Afsana
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 181) Quality of care. Author(s): Achadi, E. Pitchforth, E. Hussein, J.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 193) Monitoring and evaluation. Author(s): Hounton, S. Newlands, D. Meda, N. Hussein, J.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 210) Addressing maternal health in emergency settings. Author(s): Bartlett, L. Aitken, I. Smith, J. M. Thomas, L. J. Rosen, H. E. Tappis, H. Burnham, G.