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Maternal and perinatal health in developing countries.

Book cover for Maternal and perinatal health in developing countries.

Description

The promotion of maternal health and mortality reduction is of worldwide importance, and constitutes a vital part of the UN Millennium Development Goals. The highest maternal mortality rates are in developing countries, where global and regional initiatives are needed to improve the systems and practices involved in maternal care and medical access. Taking a practical policy approach, this book co...

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Chapter 9 (Page no: 114)

Medical conditions in pregnancy.

Medical conditions can have a major effect on the woman before, during and after pregnancy, some of which have particular importance to her offspring. The conditions are often exacerbated by pregnancy. Infectious conditions are common in developing country settings, with antenatal care providing an opportunity for detection of many conditions: * Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection affects a woman's chance of surviving pregnancy. The condition can be transmitted to her offspring. * Sexually transmissible infections cause infertility and damage to the fetus. * While the mother's immunity is compromised during pregnancy, she is at risk from varicella, influenza and malaria and may transmit congenital infections to the fetus - syphilis, genital herpes, rubella, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, listerosis and parvovirus B19. Chronic and non-communicable medical conditions may be identified for the first time in pregnancy and include: * Nutritional deficiencies such as anaemia, other micronutrients and caloric restrictions. * Circulatory disorders, such as heart disease, chronic hypertension. * Gestational, Type I or Type II diabetes. * Haematological conditions such as sickle cell anaemia and thalassaemia, which have implications for the long-term health of offspring if both parents carry the trait and for the health of the mother if she is homozygous for the condition. The management of medical conditions in pregnancy can be categorized in the following stages: * Preconceptually, couples planning to have children should be educated about immunization, improving diet and general health. * Antenatal care provides the opportunity to diagnose, manage and treat HIV, sexually transmitted infections, anaemia and other pre-existing medical conditions such as sickle cell disease, thalassaemia, heart disease and diabetes, to limit the effect of these problems. * Childbirth can be stressful physiologically. Acute management of conditions such as anaemia, diabetes and heart conditions may be necessary. Hygienic practices and HIV prophylaxis are also important. * Postpartum management of infant feeding will reduce HIV transmission, and use of insecticidetreated nets by the mother and child will contribute to preventing the consequences of malaria. Longterm management of medical conditions after pregnancy and planning for the next pregnancy are necessary.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 1) An introduction to maternal and perinatal health. Author(s): Hussein, J. Blanc, A. K. Donnay, F. McCaw-Binns, A.
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 10) The Millennium Development Goals. Author(s): McCaw-Binns, A. Hussein, J.
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 25) The politics of progress: the story of maternal mortality. Author(s): Graham, W. J.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 40) The epidemiology of maternal mortality. Author(s): Stanton, C. McCaw-Binns, A.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 51) The epidemiology of stillbirths and neonatal deaths. Author(s): Stanton, C. Lawn, J. E.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 64) Health systems. Author(s): Mavalankar, D. V. Raman, P. S.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 77) Financing maternity care. Author(s): Witter, S. Ensor, T.
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 96) Implementing clinical interventions within maternal health programmes. Author(s): Langer, A. Knight, H. Charnock, A. Wegner, M. N. Villar, J.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 127) Improving the availability of services. Author(s): Phoya, A. Mavalankar, D. V. Raman, P. S. Hussein, J.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 139) Geographical access, transport and referral systems. Author(s): Munjanja, S. P. Magure, T. Kandawasvika, G.
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 155) Demand for maternity care: beliefs, behaviour and social access. Author(s): Mumtaz, Z. Levay, A.
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 170) Empowering the community: BRAC's approach in Bangladesh. Author(s): Kaosar Afsana
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 181) Quality of care. Author(s): Achadi, E. Pitchforth, E. Hussein, J.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 193) Monitoring and evaluation. Author(s): Hounton, S. Newlands, D. Meda, N. Hussein, J.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 210) Addressing maternal health in emergency settings. Author(s): Bartlett, L. Aitken, I. Smith, J. M. Thomas, L. J. Rosen, H. E. Tappis, H. Burnham, G.