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CABI Book Chapter

Potential invasive pests of agricultural crops.

Book cover for Potential invasive pests of agricultural crops.

Description

This book highlights studies on potential invasive pests, focusing on pests from South America, Central America and the islands of the Caribbean basin. These include the Coleopterans, followed by the Lepidopterans. The importance of several dipterans is also treated. Tephritid fruit flies are addressed, as well as a novel method for improved detection of Anastrepha larval infestation in citrus fru...

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Chapter 13 (Page no: 228)

Signature chemicals for detection of Citrus infestation by fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

This chapter presents a study conducted to examine Citrus fruits infested with A. suspensa to determine if the infested fruits emitted a detectable chemical profile distinct from that of non-infested Citrus fruits. Samples of headspace volatiles were collected at various stages of infestation and chemical analysis was performed with several types of GC equipment. Since the primary goal was development of a rapid screening protocol for 'signature chemicals', the majority of analyses were performed with a rapid (9 min) GC separation method. To evaluate the efficacy of separation with this rapid method, and to identify the volatile chemical components, a slower (25 min) high-resolution GC separation was performed in combination with mass spectral analysis. A preliminary evaluation was carried out of a portable ultra-high-speed GC analyser for detection of these same chemicals using a method requiring less than 80 s for sampling and chemical analysis. The results of the study indicate that there are GC-detectable volatile chemicals associated with tephritid infestation of fruit commodities. With infested grapefruits, the chemicals can be distinguished as those indicative of Citrus peel injury and those correlated with larval feeding (pulp/albedo injury). Of the chemicals identified, none appeared to be insect-produced, but rather natural fruit volatiles occurring at higher levels than normal. Elevated levels of δ-limonene and β-ocimene are only indicative of puncture wounds or other external damage to the grapefruit peel. However, if these two chemicals are accompanied by elevated levels of hexyl butanoate and the (as of yet) unidentified compound, this volatile profile is potentially diagnostic of Citrus infestation.

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