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CABI Book Chapter

Banana systems in the humid highlands of sub-Saharan Africa: enhancing resilience and productivity.

Book cover for Banana systems in the humid highlands of sub-Saharan Africa: enhancing resilience and productivity.


This book addresses issues related to intensification of banana-based cropping systems in the (sub)humid highland areas of Africa. The information that is presented in the 28 chapters of the book is based on research carried out in the Great Lakes Region by CIALCA (Consortium for Improving Agriculture-based Livelihoods in Central Africa) and partners, and is arranged in six sections: banana germpl...


Chapter 13 (Page no: 109)

Use of DNA capture kits to collect Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum and banana bunchy top virus pathogen DNA for molecular diagnostics.

Banana Xanthomonas wilt, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum, and banana bunchy top virus disease (BBTD), caused by the banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), are two of the most devastating diseases of banana in East and Central Africa, and cause significant losses in food security and income for millions of farmers, traders and consumers. To prevent the establishment and spread of the diseases across the region, control interventions must be rapidly deployed. A first and critical step towards deployment of appropriate disease management strategies is the rapid and precise diagnosis of the causal agent of disease. The diagnosis of Xanthomonas wilt in the field based on disease symptoms is often confused with another disease that causes wilting that is due to the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense, so diagnostic tools that are easy to use, cost-effective and reliable are required to help field workers. BBTD symptoms can also be confused with nutrient deficiencies or varietal differences. To this end, three types of portable kits were evaluated for their performance in capturing pathogen DNA from the field for use in precise, molecular-based pathogen diagnostics under controlled laboratory conditions. All three prototypes tested - FTA cards, the PhytoPASS kit and two-minute DNA extraction dipsticks - gave excellent results and methods were optimized for sample collection in the field, DNA extraction and PCRbased diagnostics for X. campestris pv. musacearum and BBTV. The benefits of using DNA capture kits included: collection of pathogen DNA in a cheap and practical manner, safe and fast transfer of highintegrity pathogen DNA across country borders, rapid and precise diagnosis using state-of-the-art molecular technologies and direct comparison of results from geographically diverse samples. This is possible because analysis is performed in a uniform manner in terms of method, date, equipment, reagents and technical staff. Technical support was provided to workers in the field to help them differentiate symptoms based on diagnostic results from laboratory analyses; such support could also be provided to regulatory officials at borders to ensure that, for example, planting material is free from disease. Countries involved in testing the DNA capture kits for X. campestris pv. musacearum included Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo), Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. The same countries, with Zambia also included, were also tested for BBTV. While no positive results for X. campestris pv. musacearum were obtained from samples originating from surveys in Burundi, subsequent DNA capture kits from samples from Bubanza and Cankuzo provinces did test positive, thus confirming an outbreak of Xanthomonas wilt in this country. BBTV was confirmed in DR Congo, Burundi, Rwanda and Zambia.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 1) Plantain collection and morphological characterization in Democratic Republic of Congo: past and present activities and prospects. Author(s): Adheka, J. G. Dhed'a, D. B. Sivirihauma, C. Karamura, D. Langhe, E. de Swennen, R. Blomme, G.
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 8) Musa germplasm diversity status across a wide range of agro-ecological zones in Rwanda, Burundi and Eastern Democratic republic of Congo. Author(s): Ocimati, W. Karamura, D. Rutikanga, A. Sivirihauma, C. Ndungo, V. Adheka, J. Dhed'a, D. B. Muhindo, H. Ntamwira, J. Hakizimana, S. Ngezahayo, F. Ragama, P. Lepoint, P. Kanyaruguru, J. P. Langhe, E. de Gaidashova, S. V. Nsabimana, A. Murekezi, C. Blomme, G.
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 22) Banana genotype composition along the Uganda-Democratic Republic of Congo border: a gene pool mix for plantain and highland bananas. Author(s): Karamura, D. Ocimati, W. Ssali, R. Jogo, W. Walyawula, S. Karamura, E.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 30) Analysis of farmer-preferred traits as a basis for participatory improvement of East African highland bananas in Uganda. Author(s): Barekye, A. Tongoona, P. Derera, J. Laing, M. D. Tushemereirwe, W. K.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 37) Agronomic evaluation of common and improved dessert banana cultivars at different altitudes across Burundi. Author(s): Kamira, M. Crichton, R. J. Kanyaruguru, J. P. Asten, P. J. A. van Blomme, G. Lorenzen, J. Njukwe, E. Bergh, I. van den Ouma, E. Muchunguzi, P.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 48) Growth and yield of plantain cultivars at four sites of differing altitude in North Kivu, Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Author(s): Sikyolo, I. Sivirihauma, C. Ndungo, V. Langhe, E. de Ocimati, W. Blomme, G.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 58) Macropropagation of Musa spp. in Burundi: a preliminary study. Author(s): Lepoint, P. Iradukunda, F. Blomme, G.
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 66) Challenges and opportunities for macropropagation technology for Musa spp. among smallholder farmers and small- and medium-scale enterprises. Author(s): Njukwe, E. Ouma, E. Asten, P. J. A. van Muchunguzi, P. Amah, D.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 72) Impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth of banana genotypes in three different, pasteurized and non-pasteurized soils of Rwanda. Author(s): Gaidashova, S. V. Nsabimana, A. Asten, P. J. A. van Delvaux, B. Elsen, A. Declerck, S.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 83) Indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and growth of tissue-cultured banana plantlets under nursery and field conditions in Rwanda. Author(s): Jefwa, J. M. Rurangwa, E. Gaidashova, S. V. Kavoo, A. M. Mwashasha, M. Robinson, J. Blomme, G. Vanlauwe, B.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 93) Development of ELISA for the detection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum, the causal agent of BXW: banana Xanthomonas wilt. Author(s): Nakato, G. V. Akinbade, S. A. Kumar, P. L. Bandyopadhyay, R. Beed, F.
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 101) Systemicity and speed of movement of Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum in the banana plant after garden tool-mediated infection. Author(s): Ocimati, W. Ssekiwoko, F. Buttibwa, M. Karamura, E. Tinzaara, W. Eden-Green, S. Blomme, G.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 116) Banana Xanthomonas wilt management: effectiveness of selective mat uprooting coupled with control options for preventing disease transmission. Case study in Rwanda and eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Author(s): Rutikanga, A. Sivirihauma, C. Murekezi, C. Anuarite, U. Ndungo, V. Ocimati, W. Ntamwira, J. Lepoint, P. Blomme, G.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 125) Effect of length of fallow period after total uprooting of a Xanthomonas wilt-infected banana field on infection of newly established planting materials: case studies from Rwanda and eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Author(s): Sivirihauma, C. Rutikanga, A. Murekezi, C. Blomme, G. Anuarite, U. Ocimati, W. Lepoint, P. Ndungo, V.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 131) Distribution, incidence and farmer knowledge of banana Xanthomonas wilt in Rwanda. Author(s): Night, G. Gaidashova, S. V. Nyirigira, A. Mugiraneza, T. Rutikanga, A. Murekezi, C. Nduwayezu, A. Rurangwa, E. Mugiraneza, T. Mukase, F. Ndayitegeye, O. Tinzaara, W. Karamura, E. Jogo, W. Rwomushana, I. Opio, F. Gahakwa, D.
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 138) Xanthomonas wilt incidence in banana plots planted with asymptomatic suckers from a diseased field compared with plots using suckers from a disease-free zone in North Kivu, eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Author(s): Sivirihauma, C. Ndungo, N. Ocimati, W. Blomme, G.
Chapter: 18 (Page no: 144) Coffee/banana intercropping as an opportunity for smallholder coffee farmers in Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi. Author(s): Jassogne, L. Nibasumba, A. Wairegi, L. Baret, P. V. Deraeck, J. Mukasa, D. Wanyama, I. Bongers, G. Asten, P. J. A. van
Chapter: 19 (Page no: 150) The use of trees and shrubs to improve banana productivity and production in central Uganda: an analysis of the current situation. Author(s): Mpiira, S. Staver, C. Kagezi, G. H. Wesiga, J. Nakyeyune, C. Ssebulime, G. Kabirizi, J. Nowakunda, K. Karamura, E. Tushemereirwe, W. K.
Chapter: 20 (Page no: 158) Effect of banana leaf pruning on legume yield in banana-legume intercropping systems in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Author(s): Ntamwira, J. Pypers, P. Asten, P. J. A. van Vanlauwe, B. Ruhigwa, B. Lepoint, P. Blomme, G.
Chapter: 21 (Page no: 166) A comparative and systems approach to banana cropping systems in the Great Lakes region. Author(s): Damme, J. van Bouver, D. de Dupriez, M. Asten, P. J. A. van Baret, P. V.
Chapter: 22 (Page no: 175) Agronomic practices for Musa across different agro-ecological zones in Burundi, eastern Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda. Author(s): Ocimati, W. Karamura, D. Rutikanga, A. Sivirihauma, C. Ndungo, V. Ntamwira, J. Kamira, M. Kanyaruguru, J. P. Blomme, G.
Chapter: 23 (Page no: 191) The beer banana value chain in central Uganda. Author(s): Rietveld, A. M. Mpiira, S. Jogo, W. Staver, C. Karamura, E. B.
Chapter: 24 (Page no: 202) Contribution of bananas and plantains to the diet and nutrition of Musa-dependent households with preschoolers in Beni and Bukavu territories, eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Author(s): Ekesa, B. N. Kimiywe, J. Davey, M. Dhuique-Mayer, C. Bergh, I. van den Blomme, G.
Chapter: 25 (Page no: 210) Processes and partnerships for effective regional surveillance of banana diseases. Author(s): Beed, F. Kubiriba, J. Mugalula, A. Kolowa, H. Bulili, S. Nduwayezu, A. Murekezi, C. Sakayoya, E. Ndayihanzamaso, P. Mulenga, R. Abass, M. Mathe, L. Masheka, B. Onyango, M. Shitabule, E. Nakato, V. Ramathani, I. Bouwmeester, H.
Chapter: 26 (Page no: 216) Adoption and impact of tissue culture bananas in Burundi: an application of a propensity score matching approach. Author(s): Ouma, E. Dubois, T. Kabunga, N. Nkurunziza, S. Qaim, M. Asten, P. J. A. van
Chapter: 27 (Page no: 224) Communication approaches for sustainable management of banana Xanthomonas wilt in East and Central Africa. Author(s): Tinzaara, W. Karamura, E. Blomme, G. Jogo, W. Ocimati, W. Kubiriba, J.
Chapter: 28 (Page no: 235) A global information and knowledge sharing approach to facilitate the wider use of Musa genetic resources. Author(s): Roux, N. Ruas, M. Laliberté, B.

Chapter details

  • Author Affiliation
  • International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Kampala, Uganda.
  • Year of Publication
  • 2013
  • ISBN
  • 9781780642314
  • Record Number
  • 20133402660