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CABI Book Chapter

Amino acids in higher plants.

Book cover for Amino acids in higher plants.

Description

This book, divided into 5 parts, deals with topics on amino acids in higher plants. Part I (enzymes and metabolism) contains 16 chapters pursuing the theme of amino acid metabolism through the driving actions of the principal enzymes, emphasizing recent advances particularly with reference to localization, biophysical characterization and regulation. Part II (dynamics) includes two chapters design...

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Chapter 16 (Page no: 277)

The central role of glutamate and aspartate in the post-translational control of respiration and nitrogen assimilation in plant cells.

The assimilation of inorganic N, in the form of NH4+, into glutamine and glutamate via glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase (GOGAT) is a pivotal metabolic process in plants. This is because glutamate and glutamine are the primary amino donors for the biosynthesis of all nitrogenous compounds needed by plants. N assimilation must closely interact with glycolytic and respiratory C metabolism, because GS requires ATP and GOGAT requires C skeletons and reductant in the form of 2-oxoglutarate and reduced ferredoxin or NADH, respectively. Over 50% of net plant C may be committed to N assimilation in some tissues in order to generate sufficient 2-oxoglutarate, ATP and reductant for the GS/GOGAT system. Control of the cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) branch point by the tightly regulated enzymes cytosolic pyruvate kinase (PKc) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) exerts a major influence on the overall rate of plant respiration and N assimilation. Glutamate and aspartate are important allosteric effectors of PEP carboxylase and PKc isoforms in plant tissues that are active in NH4+ assimilation. The coordinate feedback control of PEPC and PKc by glutamate and aspartate provides a direct link between N assimilation via GS/GOGAT and the control of respiratory C metabolism.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 1) Glutamate dehydrogenase. Author(s): Osuji, G. O. Madu, W. C.
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 30) Alanine aminotransferase: amino acid metabolism in higher plants. Author(s): Raychaudhuri, A.
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 57) Aspartate aminotransferase. Author(s): Leasure, C. D. He, Z. H.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 68) Tyrosine aminotransferase. Author(s): Hudson, A. O.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 82) An insight into the role and regulation of glutamine synthetase in plants. Author(s): Sengupta-Gopalan, C. Ortega, J. L.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 100) Asparagine synthetase. Author(s): Duff, S. M. G.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 129) Glutamate decarboxylase. Author(s): Molina-Rueda, J. J. Garrido-Aranda, A. Gallardo, F.
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 142) L-arginine-dependent nitric oxide synthase activity. Author(s): Corpas, F. J. Río, L. A. del Palma, J. M. Barroso, J. B.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 156) Ornithine: at the crossroads of multiple paths to amino acids and polyamines. Author(s): Majumdar, R. Minocha, R. Minocha, S. C.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 177) Polyamines in plants: biosynthesis from arginine, and metabolic, physiological and stress-response roles. Author(s): Mattoo, A. K. Fatima, T. Upadhyay, R. K. Handa, A. K.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 195) Serine acetyltransferase. Author(s): Watanabe, M. Hubberten, H. M. Saito, K. Hoefgen, R.
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 219) Cysteine homeostasis. Author(s): García, I. Romero, L. C. Gotor, C.
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 234) Lysine metabolism. Author(s): Medici, L. O. Nazareno, A. C. Gaziola, S. A. Schmidt, D. Azevedo, R. A.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 251) Histidine. Author(s): Ingle, R. A.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 262) Amino acid synthesis under abiotic stress. Author(s): Planchet, E. Limami, A. M.
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 298) Amino acid export in plants. Author(s): Price, M. B. Okumoto, S.
Chapter: 18 (Page no: 315) Uptake, transport and redistribution of amino nitrogen in woody plants. Author(s): Pfautsch, S. Bell, T. L. Gessler, A.
Chapter: 19 (Page no: 340) Auxin biosynthesis. Author(s): Chandler, J. W.
Chapter: 20 (Page no: 362) Involvement of tryptophan-pathway-derived secondary metabolism in the defence responses of grasses. Author(s): Ishihara, A. Matsukawa, T. Nomura, T. Sue, M. Oikawa, A. Okazaki, Y. Tebayashi, S.
Chapter: 21 (Page no: 390) Melatonin: synthesis from tryptophan and its role in higher plant. Author(s): Arnao, M. B. Hernández-Ruiz, J.
Chapter: 22 (Page no: 436) Glucosinolate biosynthesis from amino acids. Author(s): Stotz, H. U. Brown, P. D. Tokuhisa, J.
Chapter: 23 (Page no: 448) Natural toxins that affect plant amino acid metabolism. Author(s): Duke, S. O. Dayan, F. E.
Chapter: 24 (Page no: 461) Glyphosate: the fate and toxicology of a herbicidal amino acid derivative. Author(s): Saltmiras, D. A. Farmer, D. R. Mehrsheikh, A. Bleeke, M. S.
Chapter: 25 (Page no: 481) Amino acid analysis of plant products. Author(s): Rutherfurd, S. M.
Chapter: 26 (Page no: 497) Metabolic amino acid availability in foods of plant origin: implications for human and livestock nutrition. Author(s): Levesque, C. L.
Chapter: 27 (Page no: 507) Toxicology of non-protein amino acids. Author(s): D'Mello, J. P. F.
Chapter: 28 (Page no: 538) Delivering innovative solutions and paradigms for a changing environment. Author(s): D'Mello, J. P. F.