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Ebooks on agriculture and the applied life sciences from CAB International

CABI Book Chapter

Bt resistance: characterization and strategies for GM crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis toxins.

Book cover for Bt resistance: characterization and strategies for GM crops producing <i xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">Bacillus thuringiensis</i> toxins.

Description

This book focuses on descriptions of the extent of use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops and the emerging problem of resistance, recent progress in elucidating the mechanism of action of Bt toxins and describing the different resistance mechanisms and strategies for coping with resistance in the field. There are four sections. In the first section ('The extent of use of Bt crops and the emergin...

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Chapter 1 (Page no: 1)

Successes and failures of transgenic Bt crops: global patterns of field-evolved resistance.

Farmers planted genetically engineered crops that produce insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) on a cumulative total of 570 million ha worldwide from 1996 to 2013. These Bt crops kill some key insect pests, yet they are not toxic to most other organisms, including people. Bt crops can suppress pests, reduce the use of insecticide sprays and increase farmer profits, but their benefits are diminished or lost when pests evolve resistance. Here we review data monitoring resistance to seven Bt proteins in 13 major pest species targeting Bt maize and Bt cotton on six continents. Of the 27 sets of monitoring data analysed, seven show severe field-evolved resistance in 2 to 8 years with practical consequences for pest control (i.e. practical resistance), eight show statistically significant but less severe field evolved resistance and 12 show no evidence of decreased susceptibility after 2 to 15 years. The surge in cases of practical resistance since 2005 is associated with increased planting of Bt crops, increased cumulative exposure of pests to Bt crops and increased monitoring. In addition, practical resistance to Bt crops is associated with a scarcity of refuges, which consist of host plants that do not produce Bt proteins. To maximize the benefits of Bt crops, we encourage collaboration between growers and scientists in industry, academia and government to implement large refuges of non-Bt host plants, particularly when the inheritance of resistance is not recessive and alleles conferring resistance are not rare.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 2 (Page no: 15) Status of resistance to Bt cotton in China: cotton bollworm and pink bollworm. Author(s): Gao YuLin Liu ChenXi Wu YiDong Wu KongMing
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 26) Insect resistance to Bt toxins in Brazil and Latin America. Author(s): Monnerat, R. Martins, E. Queiroz, P. Praça, L. Soares, C. M.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 36) Resistance of Busseola fusca to Cry1Ab Bt maize plants in South Africa and challenges to insect resistance management in Africa. Author(s): Berg, J. van den Campagne, P.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 49) Resistance of cabbage loopers to Btk in a greenhouse setting: occurrence, spread and management. Author(s): Janmaat, A. Franklin, M. Myers, J. H.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 56) Different models of the mode of action of Bt 3d-Cry toxins. Author(s): Bravo, A. Gómez, I. Mendoza, G. Gaytán, M. Soberón, M.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 69) Roles of insect midgut cadherin in Bt intoxication and resistance. Author(s): Fabrick, J. A. Wu YiDong
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 87) Mechanism of Cry1Ac resistance in cabbage loopers - a resistance mechanism selected in insect populations in an agricultural environment. Author(s): Wang, P.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 98) Roles of ABC proteins in the mechanism and management of Bt resistance. Author(s): Heckel, D. G.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 107) The role of proteolysis in the biological activity of Bt insecticidal crystal proteins. Author(s): Zalunin, I. A. Elpidina, E. N. Oppert, B.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 119) The lessons that Caenorhabditis elegans has taught us about the mechanism of action of crystal proteins. Author(s): Sitaram, A. Aroian, R. V.
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 126) The development and prospect of discovery of Bt toxin genes. Author(s): Zhang Jie Shu ChangLong Wang ZeYu
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 138) Cry toxin binding site models and their use in strategies to delay resistance evolution. Author(s): Jakka, S. Ferré, J. Jurat-Fuentes, J. L.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 150) Countering pest resistance with genetically modified Bt toxins. Author(s): Soberón, M. García-Gómez, B. I. Pacheco, S. Sánchez, J. Tabashnik, B. E. Bravo, A.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 162) RNA interference strategy for crop protection against insect pests. Author(s): Sneha Yogindran Rajam, M. V.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 173) Resistance management for Bt maize and above-ground lepidopteran targets in the USA: from single gene to pyramided traits. Author(s): Huang, F. N.
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 186) Insect resistance management and integrated pest management for Bt crops: prospects for an area-wide view. Author(s): Hutchison, W. D.