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A handbook of environmental toxicology: human disorders and ecotoxicology.

Book cover for A handbook of environmental toxicology: human disorders and ecotoxicology.

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Chapter 26 (Page no: 384)

Cadmium I. Exposure and human health effects: an overview.

Cadmium is a metal that has been extensively used for a wide variety of industrial applications in the past, but more recently the growing awareness of the adverse health effects has led to restrictions and ban of use in several applications. Cadmium is emitted into the environment via both natural and anthropogenic activities, leading to a wide dispersion in the environment and contamination of soil, including arable land, in many areas of the world. This is of concern, as cadmium is easily taken up by vegetable crops (e.g. rice, wheat, vegetables and potatoes) as well as tobacco leaves. Accordingly, today food is considered to be the major source of cadmium exposure for the majority of the world's population, while smokers are additionally exposed. In populations with high rice consumption, this is usually the main source of cadmium, while in other populations the main dietary sources are usually cereals, vegetables and root vegetables. Fortunately, only a small percentage of the cadmium intake is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, but it is increased at low iron stores. In blood, cadmium is mainly incorporated into erythrocytes and a smaller fraction is bound to metallothionein in plasma. Because of the small size of the cadmium-metallothionein complex, it is filtered through the glomeruli, making urine the primary route of excretion. However, it is also readily reabsorbed in the proximal tubular cells, leading to accumulation in the renal cortex where it has a biological half-life of 10-45 years. The cadmium concentration in urine is a marker of long-term exposure, whereas the concentration in blood is a better reflection of more recent exposure. The current risk assessments of cadmium have considered tubular damage as the critical effect. Besides the renal effect, cadmium exposure has also been associated with cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, impaired fetal and child development, cancer and mortality, which are reviewed in this and the subsequent chapter.

Other chapters from this book

Chapter: 1 (Page no: 3) Phytotoxins. Author(s): D'Mello, J. P. F.
Chapter: 2 (Page no: 19) Mycotoxins. Author(s): D'Mello, J. P. F.
Chapter: 3 (Page no: 33) Cyanobacterial toxins. Author(s): Metcalf, J. S. Souza, N. R.
Chapter: 4 (Page no: 49) Amino acids and peptides as mediators of abiotic stress tolerance in higher plants. Author(s): D'Mello, J. P. F.
Chapter: 5 (Page no: 75) Ozone I. Human disorders: an overview. Author(s): Silveyra, P. Fuentes, N. Rivera, L.
Chapter: 6 (Page no: 93) Ozone II. Biophysical observations. Author(s): Thompson, K. C.
Chapter: 7 (Page no: 105) Nitrogen dioxide: ambient exposure in human disorders. Author(s): Huang, Y. C. T. Tucker, J. L.
Chapter: 8 (Page no: 114) Sulfur dioxide and human disorders. Author(s): Ahmad, S. Ahmad, A. Ahmad, A.
Chapter: 9 (Page no: 127) Plant response to acid rain stress. Author(s): Liang, C.
Chapter: 10 (Page no: 141) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: ecotoxicity in the aquatic environment and implications for human health. Author(s): Pampanin, D. M. Schlenk, D.
Chapter: 11 (Page no: 156) The developmental neurotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls: a continuing environmental health concern. Author(s): Sethi, S. Lein, P. J.
Chapter: 12 (Page no: 173) Dioxins I. Dynamics and legal directives in Europe. Author(s): Dopico, M. Gómez, A.
Chapter: 13 (Page no: 187) Dioxins II. Human exposure and health risks. Author(s): Tuomisto, J. Viluksela, M.
Chapter: 14 (Page no: 206) Dioxins III. Relationship to pre-diabetes, diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. Author(s): Everett, C. J.
Chapter: 15 (Page no: 214) Environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals and human health. Author(s): Darbre, P. D.
Chapter: 16 (Page no: 233) Organochlorine insecticides: neurotoxicity. Author(s): Caudle, W. M.
Chapter: 17 (Page no: 246) Organophosphates I. Human health effects and implications for the environment: an overview. Author(s): Wille, T. Thiermann, H. Worek, F.
Chapter: 18 (Page no: 261) Organophosphates II. Neurobehavioural problems following low-level exposure: methodological considerations for future research. Author(s): Ross, S. J. M. Harrison, V.
Chapter: 19 (Page no: 282) Glyphosate as a glycine analogue. Author(s): Seneff, S.
Chapter: 20 (Page no: 299) Crude oil pollution I. Deepwater Horizon contamination: human health effects and health risk assessments, a case study. Author(s): Wilson, M. J.
Chapter: 21 (Page no: 311) Crude oil pollution II. Effects of the Deepwater Horizon contamination on sediment toxicity in the Gulf of Mexico. Author(s): Montagna, P. A. Arismendez, S. S.
Chapter: 22 (Page no: 320) Crude oil pollution III. Exxon Valdez contamination: ecological recovery, a case study. Author(s): Haycox, S.
Chapter: 23 (Page no: 334) Review of studies of composition, toxicology and human health impacts of wastewater from unconventional oil and gas development from shale. Author(s): Crosby, L. M. Orem, W. H.
Chapter: 24 (Page no: 353) Minamata disease and methylmercury exposure. Author(s): Hachiya, N.
Chapter: 25 (Page no: 371) Lead poisoning. Author(s): Katner, A. L. Mielke, H. W.
Chapter: 27 (Page no: 394) Cadmium II. Cardiovascular effects of human exposure to cadmium: left ventricular structure and function. Author(s): Yang, W. Y. Staessen, J. A.
Chapter: 28 (Page no: 405) Particulates from combustion sources: formation, characteristics and toxic hazards. Author(s): Purser, D. A.
Chapter: 29 (Page no: 424) Assessment of the ecotoxicity of airborne particulate matter. Author(s): Kováts, N.
Chapter: 30 (Page no: 436) Toxicity of microplastics in the marine environment. Author(s): Santana, M. F. M. Turra, A.
Chapter: 31 (Page no: 457) UV exposure and skin-protective effects of plant polyphenols. Author(s): Agulló-Chazarra, L. Pérez-Sánchez, A. Herranz-López, M. Micol, V. Barrajón-Catalán, E.
Chapter: 32 (Page no: 475) Radon I. Lung cancer risks. Author(s): Melloni, B.
Chapter: 33 (Page no: 484) Radon II. Leukaemia or CNS cancer risks among children. Author(s): Kollerud, R. del R.
Chapter: 34 (Page no: 497) Fukushima nuclear accident: potential health effects inferred from butterfly and human cases. Author(s): Otaki, J. M.
Chapter: 35 (Page no: 517) Microbial remediation of contaminated soils. Author(s): Shahsavari, E. Mansur, A. A. Aburto-Medina, A. Haleyur, N. Jones, N. Ball, A. S.
Chapter: 36 (Page no: 531) Metallic iron for environmental remediation: prospects and limitations. Author(s): Noubactep, C.
Chapter: 37 (Page no: 545) Remediation of contaminated soil by biochar. Author(s): Sima, X. F. Jiang, H.
Chapter: 38 (Page no: 561) Environmental regulations in China. Author(s): He, G. Z.
Chapter: 39 (Page no: 577) 21st Century toxicology: methods for environmental toxicology and monitoring. Author(s): Lundqvist, J.
Chapter: 40 (Page no: 587) Unequivocal evidence associating environmental contaminants and pollutants with human morbidity and ecological degradation. Author(s): D'Mello, J. P. F.

Chapter details

  • Author Affiliation
  • Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
  • Year of Publication
  • 2020
  • ISBN
  • 9781786394675
  • Record Number
  • 20193493756