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Ebooks on agriculture and the applied life sciences from CAB International
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This is a rewritten and expanded version of the 1984 book of the same title published by Butterworths. The objective remains the same: to teach advanced students of agriculture and related ecological sciences how to express ideas mathematically and solve the resulting mathematical problems....
Agriculture and science are put into context and 'explained'. Two simple mathematical models are presented in order to introduce modelling terminology and ideas, such as hierarchy and description. Hierarchy in biology is a concept crucial to understanding differences between various model types....
This chapter surveys a variety of growth equations, including commonly encountered ones such as the monomolecular, logistic, Gompertz and Richards, amongst others. These exhibit a range of shapes, encompassing diminishing returns and sigmoidal behaviour. Some of the equations can be derived from a...
This chapter extends the previous chapter by presenting several models some of which are obtained by modification of the simplest growth functions, but are often not analytically soluble. First, ways in which simple exponential growth can be limited are considered. Then the representation of delays ...
Dynamic deterministic models are the principal type of model used in this book, and, arguably, are the most important in the wider biological context. The general method of dynamic deterministic modelling is explained, emphasizing the role of state variables, differential equations, other...
Ecological models often use more 'holistic' concepts than those we have met so far. What this means is discussed. Differential equations and difference equations are considered. Models can be age-structured, morph-structured, or both. A Lotka-Volterra type of model is presented. A non-spatial...
Time is discussed first, giving a number of essential but perhaps rather boring relationships between the continuous time variable, day of month, month and Julian day number. Astronomical equations of biological significance are then developed, covering the sun's elevation and azimuth angles, day...
This paper discusses the principal processes needed for the development of plant and crop models. Its aim is to give an account of the themes which a crop modeller is likely to need, and at the same time give a critical appraisal of the state of the art. Careful evaluation of the assumptions of a...
The structure of crop models is surveyed. No attempt is made to review crop models in general: they are too numerous. However, crop models have many common features, suitable for textbook presentation. To set the scene, a generic crop/plant ecosystem model working on a daily basis is constructed....
This paper considers simple models for use in crop husbandry. Topics considered are a grass drying enterprise, allocating land to arable crops, harvesting Brussels sprouts, planting wheat, grazing, and grassland and fertilizer usage. Silage modelling is also considered, and a simple early model of...